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Ground-Water Microbiology and Geochemistry

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ISBN-10: 047134852X

ISBN-13: 9780471348528

Edition: 2nd 2001 (Revised)

Authors: Francis H. Chapelle

List price: $175.00
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Description:

This text offers a contribution to protecting valuable ground-water resources. It gives a basic overview of microbiology and discusses microbial abundance and distribution of microorganisms, and biogeochemical cycling.
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Book details

List price: $175.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/26/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 496
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.332
Language: English

Preface
Acknowledgments
Overview of Microbiology
History, Geology, and Microbiology
Geology--An Observational Science
Microbiology--An Experimental Science
Ground-Water Chemistry and Subsurface Microbiology
Subsurface Microbiology and the Geosciences
Subsurface Microbiology and Microbial Ecology
Subsurface Microbiology and Contaminant Biodegradation
Chapter Summary
Questions to Consider
Microorganisms Present in the Ground-Water Environment
The Bacteria
The Eucarya
Eucaryotes in Ground-Water Systems
The Archaea
The Viruses
Viral Ecology
Viruses in Ground-Water Systems
Bacteria in Ground-Water Systems
Classifying Bacteria
Gram-Negative Bacteria Found in Ground-Water Systems
Gram-Positive Bacteria in Ground-Water Systems
Chapter Summary
Questions to Consider
Bacterial Growth
Bacterial Reproduction
Population Growth Kinetics
Environmental Conditions and Bacterial Growth
Temperature
Water
Molecular Oxygen
pH
Osmotic Pressure
Techniques for Culturing Bacteria
Design of Growth Media
Isolating Bacteria from Environmental Samples
Enumerating Bacteria
Viable Counting Procedures
Direct Counting Procedures
Chapter Summary
Questions to Consider
Bacterial Metabolism
Thermodynamics and Bacterial Metabolism
ATP Synthesis-Storing Energy
Electron Transport Systems--Releasing Energy
Chemiosmosis--Harnessing Energy from Electron Transport
The Role of Enzymes
Energy-Releasing Pathways of Geochemical Importance
Lactate and Acetate Fermentations
Ferredoxins and the Production of Hydrogen and Acetate in Fermentation
Methanogenic Pathways
Sulfate Reduction
Fe(III) Reduction
Nitrate Reduction
Oxygen Reduction--Aerobic Metabolism
Biosynthesis
Amino Acids
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Chemolithotrophy
Hydrogen Oxidizers
Sulfide Oxidizers
Iron Oxidizers
Ammonia-Oxidizing (Nitrifying) Bacteria
Autotrophic CO[subscript 2] Fixation
Metabolic Control of Geochemical Processes
Summary
Questions to Consider
Bacterial Genetics
DNA--Its Structure and Organization
RNA--Its Structure and Organization
Transcription
Translation--Making Proteins
Gene Expression and Regulation
Induction
Repression
Mutations
Mutagenic Agents
Transposable Genetic Material
Natural Genetic Exchanges
Recombination
DNA Technology
Analyzing DNA
DNA Cloning
Genetic Engineering
Plasmids
Vectors
Applications of DNA Technology
Insulin Production
Enhanced Biodegradation
DNA Technology in Subsurface Microbiology
Phylogenetic Analysis of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria
Using DNA Probes to Find Contaminant-Degrading Microorganisms
Release of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms to the Environment
Summary
Questions to Consider
Microbial Ecology of Ground-Water Ststems
Scope of Subsurface Microbial Ecology
Methods in Subsurface Microbial Ecology
Culture Methods
Direct Observation
Phospolipid Fatty Acid Analysis
Activity Measurements in Microcosms
Geochemical Methods
Molecular Microbial Ecology
Microbial Diversity and Niches in Aquifer Systems
Measurement of Diversity
Niches and Sources of Microbial Diversity
Stress and Microbial Diversity
Population Interactions
Neutralism
Commensalism
Synergism and Symbiosis
Competition
Antagonism, Parasitism, and Predation
r and K Strategies in Microbial Ecosystems
r and K Strategies in the Aquifer Environment
Chapter Summary
Questions to Consider
Microbial Processes in Pristine Ground-Water Systems
Abundance and Distribution of Bacteria in the Subsurface
Classification of Subsurface Environments
The Unsaturated Zone
The Unsaturated Zone As a Microbial Habitat
Biomass Measurements in Soil Microbiology
Distribution of Bacteria in the Unsaturated Zone
Local Flow Systems
Local Flow Systems as a Microbial Habitat
Distribution of Bacteria in Local Flow Systems
Intermediate Flow Systems
Intermediate Flow Systems As a Microbial Habitat
Distribution of Bacteria in Intermediate Flow Systems
Microbial Processes in Confining Beds
Regional Flow systems
Early Observations from Petroleum Reservoirs
Distribution of Bacteria in Regional Flow Systems
Chapter Summary
Questions to Consider
Microbiological Sampling of Subsurface Environments
Sampling the Unsaturated Zone
Hand Augering
Air Drilling and Coring
Sampling Local Flow Systems
Split Spoon Sampling
Push-Tube (Shelby Tube) Sampling Methods
Direct Push Sampling
Aseptic Technique with Split-Spoon, Shelby Tube, and Direct Push Sampling
Sampling Intermediate and Regional Systems
Mud Rotary Drilling
Drilling Fluids
Mud-Rotary Coring
Drilling Fluid Contamination of Cored Sediments
Down-Hole Saturation Contamination
Core Seepage Contamination
Core-fracture Contamination
Evaluating Drilling Fluid Contamination
Sampling Ground Water for Microorganisms
Chapter Summary
Questions to Consider
Biogeochemical Cycling in Ground-Water Systems
The Oxygen Cycle
Oxygen Cycling in Ground-Water Systems
The Carbon Cycle
The Integrated Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Cycles
Carbon Cycling in Ground-Water Systems
The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Cycling in Ground-Water Systems
The Iron Cycle
Iron Cycling in Aquatic Sediments
Iron Cycling in Ground-Water Systems
The Sulfur Cycle
Sulfur Cycling in Ground-Water Systems
Chapter Summary
Questions to Consider
Oxidation-Reduction Processes in Ground-Water Systems
Overview of Redox Geochemistry
The Equilibrium Approach
The Kinetic Approach
Redox Processes in Ground-Water Systems
Describing Kinetic Redox Processes in Ground-Water Systems
Identifying Electron Donors
Identifying Electron Acceptors
Identifying Terminal Electron-Accepting Processes (TEAPs) in the Environment
Redox Zonation in Aquatic Sediments
Redox Zonation in Ground-Water Systems
Redox Processes in Pristine Ground-Water Systems
Black Creek Aquifer of South Carolina
Floridan Aquifer of Georgia
Redox Processes in Contaminated Ground-Water Systems
A Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer, Charleston, South Carolina
A Mixed Petroleum Hydrocarbon/Chlorinated Solvent-Contaminated Aquifer, Plattsburgh, New York
Complications Associated with Small-Scale Redox Zones
Kinetic Modeling of Redox Processes
Electron Flow in Ground-Water Systems
Developing Kinetic Models of Microbial Redox Processes
Chapter Summary
Questions to Consider
Microbial Processes in Contaminated Ground-Water Systems
Microbial Acclimation to Ground-Water Contamination
Microbial Response to Environmental Changes
Mechanisms of Acclimation
Induction
Catabolite Repression
Genetic Mutations
Acclimation to Available Electron Acceptors
Production of Proteins in Response to Chemical Stresses
Factors Affecting Microbial Acclimation
Rates of Acclimation
Concentration Effects
Cross-Acclimation of Xenobiotic Compounds
Chemical Structure of Xenobiotics
Acclimation to Xenobiotics in Ground-Water Systems
Acclimation Response in a Contaminated Aquifer
Acclimation Response in Pristine Aquifer Sediments
Acclimation of Eucaryotic Microorganisms
Acclimation in Bioremediation Technology
Acclimation to Metal Toxicity
Metal Detoxification Mechanisms
Plasmid-Encoded Metal Resistance Mechanisms
Acclimation to Mercury Toxicity
Summary
Questions to Consider
Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Ground-Water Systems
Composition of Crude Oil
Petroleum Refining and Fuel Blending
Movement and Separation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Ground-Water Systems
Density-Driven Migration of Hydrocarbons
Solubility and Hydrocarbon Separation in Ground-Water Systems
Microbial Degradation of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Methane Oxidation
Oxidation of n-alkanes
Alkene Oxidation and Reduction
Branched Aliphatics
Microbial Degradation of Alicyclic Hydrocarbons
Pathways for Cyclohexanol Degradation
Microbial Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Benzene Degradation
Degradation of Alkyl Benzenes
Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds
Anaerobic Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Biodegradation of Alkyl Ethers
Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Ground-Water Systems
Aerobic Degradation of BTX Compounds
Anaerobic Degradation of BTEX Compounds
Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contamination in Ground-Water Systems
Marine Oil Spills and the Biodegradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Microbial Degradation Processes in Shallow Water Table Aquifers
Engineered Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Ground-Water Systems
Monitored Natural Attenuation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Estimating Biodegradation Rates in Ground-Water Systems
Summary
Questions to Consider
Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Halogenated Organic Compounds in Ground-Water Systems
Chemistry and Uses of Halogenated Organic Compounds
Aliphatic Compounds
Monocyclic Aromatic Compounds
Polychlorinated Biphenols
Organochlorine Insecticides
Chlorinated Herbicides
Chlorinated Phenols
Microbial Degradation of Halogenated Organic Compounds
Chlorinated Ethenes
Chlorinated Benzenes
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Organochlorine Insecticides
Chlorinated Herbicides
Chlorinated Phenols
Biodegradation of Halogenated Organic Compounds in Ground-Water Systems
Reductive and Oxidative Biodegradation Patterns for Chlorinated Ethenes
Cometabolic Degradation of Chlorinated Ethenes
Degradation Patterns of Alkyl Halide Insecticides
Degradation Patterns of Chlorobenzenes
Degradation of Chlorinated Herbicides
Degradation of Chlorophenolic Compounds
Summary
Questions to Consider
References
Index