Introduction to the Human Body The Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

ISBN-10: 0471222798

ISBN-13: 9780471222798

Edition: 6th 2004

Authors: Gerard J. Tortora, Sandra Reynolds Grabowski

List price: $165.95
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Description:

This edition is up-to-date and reflects the latest information and thinking in the field. Focus on Homeostasis boxes clarify ways in which each system contributes to the homeostasis of each of the other body systems. Focus on Wellness Essays throughout help readers apply the concepts to good health and understand how life-style factors affect the structure and function of the body.
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Book details

List price: $165.95
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/20/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 720
Size: 9.25" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 4.136
Language: English

Organization of the Human Body
Anatomy and Physiology Defined
Levels of Organization and Body Systems
Life Processes
Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits
Control of Homeostasis: Feedback Systems
Homeostasis and Disease
Aging and Homeostasis
Anatomical Terms
Names of Body Regions
Directional Terms
Planes and Sections
Body Cavities
Dorsal Body Cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants
Introductory Chemistry
Introduction to Chemistry
Chemical Elements and Atoms
Ions, Molecules, and Compounds
Chemical Bonds
Chemical Reactions
Chemical Compounds and Life Processes
Inorganic Compounds
Organic Compounds
Cells
A Generalized View of the Cell
The Plasma Membrane
Transport across the Plasma Membrane
Passive Processes
Active Transport
Transport in Vesicles
Cytoplasm
Cytosol
Organelles
Nucleus
Gene Action: Protein Synthesis
Transcription
Translation
Somatic Cell Division
Interphase
Mitotic Phase
Aging and Cells
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Tissues
Types of Tissues
Epithelial Tissue
General Features of Epithelial Tissue
Covering and Lining Epithelium
Glandular Epithelium
Connective Tissue
General Features of Connective Tissue
Connective Tissue Cells
Connective Tissue Matrix
Types of Connective Tissue
Muscular Tissue
Nervous Tissue
Membranes
Mucous Membranes
Serous Membranes
Synovial Membranes
Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis
Aging and Tissues
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Integumentary System
Skin
Structure of Skin
Epidermis
Dermis
Skin Color
Accessory Structures of the Skin
Hair
Glands
Nails
Functions of the Skin
Aging and the Integumentary System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Focus on Homeostasis: The Integumentary System
The Skeletal System
Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System
Types of Bones
Structure of Bone
Macroscopic Structure of Bone
Microscopic Structure of Bone
Ossification: Bone Formation
Intramembranous Ossification
Endochondral Ossification
Homeostasis of Bone
Bone Growth and Maintenance
Bone's Role in Calcium Homeostasis
Exercise and Bone Tissue
Bone Surface Markings
Divisions of the Skeletal System
Skull and Hyoid Bone
Cranial Bones
Facial Bones
Unique Features of the Skull
Hyoid Bone
Vertebral Column
Regions of the Vertebral Column
Normal Curves of the Vertebral Column
Vertebrae
Thorax
Sternum
Ribs
Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
Clavicle
Scapula
Upper Limb
Humerus
Ulna and Radius
Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges
Pelvic (Hip) Girdle
Lower Limb
Femur
Patella
Tibia and Fibula
Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges
Comparison of Female and Male Skeletons
Aging and the Skeletal System
Focus on Homeostasis: The Skeletal System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Joints
Joints
Fibrous Joints
Cartilaginous Joints
Synovial Joints
Structure of Synovial Joints
Types of Synovial Joints
Types of Movements at Synovial Joints
Gliding
Angular Movements
Rotation
Special Movements
Details of a Synovial Joint: The Knee Joint
Aging and Joints
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Muscular System
Overview of Muscular Tissue
Types of Muscular Tissue
Functions of Muscular Tissue
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Connective Tissue Components
Nerve and Blood Supply
Histology
Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle
Sliding-Filament Mechanism
Neuromuscular Junction
Physiology of Contraction
Relaxation
Muscle Tone
Metabolism of Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Energy for Contraction
Muscle Fatigue
Oxygen Consumption after Exercise
Control of Muscle Tension
Twitch Contraction
Frequency of Stimulation
Motor Unit Recruitment
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Isometric and Isotonic Contractions
Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Smooth Muscle Tissue
Aging and Muscular Tissue
How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement
Origin and Insertion
Group Actions
Principal Skeletal Muscles
Focus on Homeostasis: The Muscular System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Nervous Tissue
Overview of the Nervous System
Structures of the Nervous System
Functions of the Nervous System
Organization of the Nervous System
Histology of Nervous Tissue
Neurons
Neuroglia
Myelination
Gray and White Matter
Action Potentials
Ion Channels
Resting Membrane Potential
Generation of Action Potentials
Conduction of Nerve Impulses
Synaptic Transmission
Events at a Synapse
Neurotransmitters
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Central Nervous System, Spinal Nerves, and Cranial Nerves
Spinal Cord
Protection and Coverings: Vertebral Canal and Meninges
Structure and Function of the Spinal Cord
Spinal Nerves
Spinal Nerve Composition and Coverings
Distribution of Spinal Nerves
Brain
Major Parts and Protective Coverings
Brain Blood Supply and the Blood-Brain Barrier
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Brain Stem
Diencephalon
Cerebellum
Cerebrum
Cranial Nerves
Aging and the Nervous System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Autonomic Nervous System
Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems
Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System
Organization of the Sympathetic Division
Organization of the Parasympathetic Division
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System
ANS Neurotransmitters
Activities of the ANS
Common Disorders
Sensations
Overview of Sensations
Definition of Sensation
Characteristics of Sensations
Types of Sensory Receptors
Somatic Senses
Tactile Sensations
Thermal Sensations
Pain Sensations
Proprioceptive Sensations
Special Senses
Olfaction: Sense of Smell
Structure of the Olfactory Epithelium
Stimulation of Olfactory Receptors
The Olfactory Pathway
Gustation: Sense of Taste
Structure of Taste Buds
Stimulation of Gustatory Receptors
The Gustatory Pathway
Vision
Accessory Structures of the Eye
Layers of the Eyeball
Interior of the Eyeball
Image Formation and Binocular Vision
Stimulation of Photoreceptors
The Visual Pathway
Hearing and Equilibrium
Structure of the Ear
Physiology of Hearing
Auditory Pathway
Physiology of Equilibrium
Equilibrium Pathways
Focus on Homeostasis: The Nervous System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Endocrine System
Introduction
Hormone Action
Chemistry of Hormones
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
Control of Hormone Secretions
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Thyroid Gland
Actions of Thyroid Hormones
Control of Thyroid Hormone Secretion
Calcitonin
Parathyroid Glands
Pancreatic Islets
Actions of Glucagon and Insulin
Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Adrenal Medulla Hormones
Ovaries and Testes
Pineal Gland
Other Hormones
Hormones from Other Endocrine Cells
Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes
The Stress Response
Aging and the Endocrine System
Focus on Homeostasis: The Endocrine System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Cardiovascular System: Blood
Functions of Blood
Components of Whole Blood
Blood Plasma
Formed Elements
Hemostasis
Vascular Spasm
Platelet Plug Formation
Clotting
Hemostatic Control Mechanisms
Clotting in Blood Vessels
Blood Groups and Blood Types
ABO Blood Groups
Rh Blood Group
Transfusions
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Cardiovascular System: Heart
Structure and Organization of the Heart
Location and Coverings of the Heart
Heart Wall
Chambers of the Heart
Great Vessels of the Heart
Valves of the Heart
Blood Flow and Blood Supply of the Heart
Conduction System of the Heart
Electrocardiogram
The Cardiac Cycle
Heart Sounds
Cardiac Output
Regulation of Stroke Volume
Regulation of Heart Rate
Exercise and the Heart
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
Blood Vessel Structure and Function
Arteries and Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules and Veins
Blood Flow Through Blood Vessels
Blood Pressure
Resistance
Regulation of Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
Checking Circulation
Pulse
Measurement of Blood Pressure
Circulatory Routes
Systemic Circulation
Pulmonary Circulation
Hepatic Portal Circulation
Fetal Circulation
Aging and the Cardiovascular System
Focus on Homeostasis: The Cardiovascular System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Lymphatic and Immune System
Lymphatic and Immune System
Lymphatic Vessels and Lymph Circulation
Lymphatic Organs and Tissues
Nonspecific Resistance: Innate Defenses
First Line of Defense: Barriers
Second Line of Defense: Internal Defenses
Specific Resistance: Immunity
Maturation of T Cells and B Cells
Types of Immune Responses
Antigens and Antibodies
Processing and Presenting Antigens
T Cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity
B Cells and Antibody-Mediated Immunity
Immunological Memory
Primary and Secondary Response
Naturally Acquired and Artificially Acquired Immunity
Aging and the Immune System
Focus on Homeostasis: The Lymphatic and Immune System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Respiratory System
Organs of the Respiratory System
Nose
Pharynx
Larynx
The Structures of Voice Production
Trachea
Bronchi and Bronchioles
Lungs
Ventilation
Muscles of Inhalation and Exhalation
Pressure Changes During Ventilation
Lung Volumes and Capacities
Breathing Patterns and Modified Respiratory Movements
Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
External Respiration: Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Internal Respiration: Systemic Gas Exchange
Transport of Respiratory Gases
Oxygen Transport
Carbon Dioxide Transport
Control of Respiration
Respiratory Center
Regulation of the Respiratory Center
Exercise and the Respiratory System
Aging and the Respiratory System
Focus on Homeostasis: The Respiratory System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Digestive System
Overview of the Digestive System
Layers of the GI Tract and the Omentum
Mouth
Tongue
Salivary Glands
Teeth
Digestion in the Mouth
Pharynx and Esophagus
Stomach
Structure of the Stomach
Digestion and Absorption in the Stomach
Pancreas
Structure of the Pancreas
Pancreatic Juice
Regulation of Pancreatic Secretions
Liver and Gallbladder
Structure of the Liver and Gallbladder
Bile
Functions of the Liver
Small Intestine
Structure of the Small Intestine
Intestinal Juice
Mechanical Digestion in the Small Intestine
Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine
Regulation of Intestinal Secretion and Motility
Absorption in the Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Structure of the Large Intestine
Digestion and Absorption in the Large Intestine
The Defecation Reflex
Aging and the Digestive System
Focus on Homeostasis: The Digestive System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Nutrition and Metabolism
Nutrients
Guidelines for Healthy Eating
Minerals
Vitamins
Metabolism
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
Protein Metabolism
Metabolism and Body Heat
Measuring Heat
Body Temperature Homeostasis
Regulation of Body Temperature
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
The Urinary System
Overview
Structure of the Kidneys
External Anatomy of the Kidneys
Internal Anatomy of the Kidneys
Renal Blood Supply
Nephrons
Functions of the Nephron
Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
Components of Urine
Transportation, Storage, and Elimination of Urine
Ureters
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
Micturition
Aging and the Urinary System
Focus on Homeostasis: The Urinary System
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance
Sources of Body Water Gain and Loss
Regulation of Body Water Gain
Regulation of Water and Solute Loss
Movement of Water Between Fluid Compartments
Electrolytes in Body Fluids
Acid-Base Balance
The Actions of Buffer Systems
Exhalation of Carbon Dioxide
Kidneys
Acid-Base Imbalances
Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
The Reproductive Systems
Male Reproductive System
Scrotum
Testes
Ducts
Accessory Sex Glands
Semen
Penis
Female Reproductive System
Ovaries
Uterine Tubes
Uterus
Vagina
Perineum and Vulva
Mammary Glands
The Female Reproductive Cycle
Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive Cycle
Phases of the Female Reproductive Cycle
The Human Sexual Response
Stages of the Human Sexual Response
Changes in Males
Changes in Females
Birth Control Methods and Abortion
Surgical Sterilization
Hormonal Methods
Intrauterine Devices
Spermicides
Barrier Methods
Periodic Abstinence
Abortion
Aging and the Reproductive Systems
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Development and Inheritance
Embryonic Period
First Week of Development
Second Week of Development
Third Week of Development
Fourth Through Eighth Weeks of Development
Fetal Period
Maternal Changes During Pregnancy
Hormones of Pregnancy
Changes during Pregnancy
Exercise and Pregnancy
Labor and Delivery
Lactation
Inheritance
Genotype and Phenotype
Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes
Common Disorders
Medical Terminology and Conditions
Answers to Self-Quizzes
Glossary
Credits
Index
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