Fuel Cell Systems Explained

ISBN-10: 047084857X

ISBN-13: 9780470848579

Edition: 2nd 2003 (Revised)

List price: $170.00
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Description:

The use of fuel cells as independent power sources is expected to become increasingly widespread. This book aids understanding of the technology by setting out the working methods, behaviour, limitations, special features and potential of fuel cells.
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Book details

List price: $170.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/28/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 428
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.332
Language: English

Preface
Foreword to the first edition
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations
Symbols
Introduction
Hydrogen Fuel Cells--Basic Principles
What Limits the Current?
Connecting Cells in Series--the Bipolar Plate
Gas Supply and Cooling
Fuel Cell Types
Other Cells--Some Fuel Cells, Some Not
Biological fuel cells
Metal/air cells
Redox flow cells or regenerative fuel cells
Other Parts of a Fuel Cell System
Figures Used to Compare Systems
Advantages and Applications
References
Efficiency and Open Circuit Voltage
Energy and the EMF of the Hydrogen Fuel Cell
The Open Circuit Voltage of Other Fuel Cells and Batteries
Efficiency and Efficiency Limits
Efficiency and the Fuel Cell Voltage
The Effect of Pressure and Gas Concentration
The Nernst equation
Hydrogen partial pressure
Fuel and oxidant utilisation
System pressure
An application--blood alcohol measurement
Summary
References
Operational Fuel Cell Voltages
Introduction
Terminology
Fuel Cell Irreversibilities--Causes of Voltage Drop
Activation Losses
The Tafel equation
The constants in the Tafel equation
Reducing the activation overvoltage
Summary of activation overvoltage
Fuel Crossover and Internal Currents
Ohmic Losses
Mass Transport or Concentration Losses
Combining the Irreversibilities
The Charge Double Layer
Distinguishing the Different Irreversibilities
References
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Overview
How the Polymer Electrolyte Works
Electrodes and Electrode Structure
Water Management in the PEMFC
Overview of the problem
Airflow and water evaporation
Humidity of PEMFC air
Running PEM fuel cells without extra humidification
External humidification--principles
External humidification--methods
PEM Fuel Cell Cooling and Air Supply
Cooling using the cathode air supply
Separate reactant and cooling air
Water cooling of PEM fuel cells
PEM Fuel Cell Connection--the Bipolar Plate
Introduction
Flow field patterns on the bipolar plates
Making bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells
Other topologies
Operating Pressure
Outline of the problem
Simple quantitative cost/benefit analysis of higher operating pressures
Other factors affecting choice of pressure
Reactant Composition
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Methanol and other liquid fuels
Using pure oxygen in place of air
Example Systems
Small 12-W system
Medium 2-kW system
205-kW fuel cell engine
References
Alkaline Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Historical Background and Overview
Basic principles
Historical importance
Main advantages
Types of Alkaline Electrolyte Fuel Cell
Mobile electrolyte
Static electrolyte alkaline fuel cells
Dissolved fuel alkaline fuel cells
Operating Pressure and Temperature
Electrodes for Alkaline Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Introduction
Sintered nickel powder
Raney metals
Rolled electrodes
Cell Interconnections
Problems and Development
References
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Introduction
Anode Reaction and Catalysts
Overall DMFC reaction
Anode reactions in the alkaline DMFC
Anode reactions in the PEM direct methanol FC
Anode fuel feed
Anode catalysts
Electrolyte and Fuel Crossover
How fuel crossover occurs
Standard techniques for reducing fuel crossover
Fuel crossover techniques in development
Cathode Reactions and Catalysts
Methanol Production, Storage, and Safety
Methanol production
Methanol safety
Methanol compared to ethanol
Methanol storage
Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications
References
Medium and High Temperature Fuel Cells
Introduction
Common Features
An introduction to fuel reforming
Fuel utilisation
Bottoming cycles
The use of heat exchangers--exergy and pinch technology
The Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
How it works
Performance of the PAFC
Recent developments in PAFC
The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
How it works
Implications of using a molten carbonate electrolyte
Cell components in the MCFC
Stack configuration and sealing
Internal reforming
Performance of MCFCS
Practical MCFC systems
The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
How it works
SOFC components
Practical design and stacking arrangements for the SOFC
SOFC performance
SOFC combined cycles, novel system designs and hybrid systems
Intermediate temperature SOFCs
References
Fuelling Fuel Cells
Introduction
Fossil Fuels
Petroleum
Petroleum in mixtures: tar sands, oil shales, gas hydrates, and LPG
Coal and coal gases
Natural gas
Bio-Fuels
The Basics of Fuel Processing
Fuel cell requirements
Desulphurisation
Steam reforming
Carbon formation and pre-reforming
Internal reforming
Direct hydrocarbon oxidation
Partial oxidation and autothermal reforming
Hydrogen generation by pyrolysis or thermal cracking of hydrocarbons
Further fuel processing--carbon monoxide removal
Practical Fuel Processing--Stationary Applications
Conventional industrial steam reforming
System designs for natural gas fed PEMFC and PAFC plants with steam reformers
Reformer and partial oxidation designs
Practical Fuel Processing--Mobile Applications
General issues
Methanol reforming for vehicles
Micro-scale methanol reactors
Gasoline reforming
Electrolysers
Operation of electrolysers
Applications of electrolysers
Electrolyser efficiency
Generating at high pressure
Photo-electrolysis
Biological Production of Hydrogen
Introduction
Photosynthesis
Hydrogen production by digestion processes
Hydrogen Storage I--Storage as Hydrogen
Introduction to the problem
Safety
The storage of hydrogen as a compressed gas
Storage of hydrogen as a liquid
Reversible metal hydride hydrogen stores
Carbon nanofibres
Storage methods compared
Hydrogen Storage II--Chemical Methods
Introduction
Methanol
Alkali metal hydrides
Sodium borohydride
Ammonia
Storage methods compared
References
Compressors, Turbines, Ejectors, Fans, Blowers, and Pumps
Introduction
Compressors--Types Used
Compressor Efficiency
Compressor Power
Compressor Performance Charts
Performance Charts for Centrifugal Compressors
Compressor Selection--Practical Issues
Turbines
Turbochargers
Ejector Circulators
Fans and Blowers
Membrane/Diaphragm Pumps
References
Delivering Fuel Cell Power
Introduction
DC Regulation and Voltage Conversion
Switching devices
Switching regulators
Inverters
Single phase
Three phase
Regulatory issues and tariffs
Power factor correction
Electric Motors
General points
The induction motor
The brushless DC motor
Switched reluctance motors
Motors efficiency
Motor mass
Fuel Cell/Battery or Capacitor Hybrid Systems
References
Fuel Cell Systems Analysed
Introduction
Energy Systems
Well-To-Wheels Analysis
Importance of well-to-wheels analysis
Well-to-tank analysis
Main conclusions of the GM well-to-wheels study
Power-Train or Drive-Train Analysis
Example System I--PEMFC Powered Bus
Example System II--Stationary Natural Gas Fuelled System
Introduction
Flow sheet and conceptual systems designs
Detailed engineering designs
Further systems analysis
Closing Remarks
References
Change in Molar Gibbs Free Energy Calculations
Hydrogen Fuel Cell
The Carbon Monoxide Fuel Cell
References
Useful Fuel Cell Equations
Introduction
Oxygen and Air Usage
Air Exit Flow Rate
Hydrogen Usage
Water Production
Heat Produced
Index
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