| |

| |

Preface | |

| |

| |

| |

Understanding the physical universe | |

| |

| |

| |

The programme of physics | |

| |

| |

| |

The building blocks of matter | |

| |

| |

| |

Matter in bulk | |

| |

| |

| |

The fundamental interactions | |

| |

| |

| |

Exploring the physical universe: the scientific method | |

| |

| |

| |

The role of physics: its scope and applications | |

| |

| |

| |

Using mathematical tools in physics | |

| |

| |

| |

Applying the scientific method | |

| |

| |

| |

The use of variables to represent displacement and time | |

| |

| |

| |

Representation of data | |

| |

| |

| |

The use of differentiation in analysis: velocity and acceleration in linear motion | |

| |

| |

| |

The use of integration in analysis | |

| |

| |

| |

Maximum and minimum values of physical variables: general linear motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Angular motion: the radian | |

| |

| |

| |

The role of mathematics in physics | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

The causes of motion: dynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

The concept of force | |

| |

| |

| |

The first law of dynamics (Newton's first law) | |

| |

| |

| |

The fundamental dynamical principle (Newton's second law) | |

| |

| |

| |

Systems of units: SI | |

| |

| |

| |

Time dependent forces: oscillatory motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple harmonic motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Mechanical work and energy: power | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy in simple harmonic motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Dissipative forces: damped harmonic motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Forced oscillations | |

| |

| |

| |

Nonlinear dynamics: chaos | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Motion in two and three dimensions | |

| |

| |

| |

Vector physical quantities | |

| |

| |

| |

Vector algebra | |

| |

| |

| |

Velocity and acceleration vectors | |

| |

| |

| |

Force as a vector quantity: vector form of the laws of dynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Constraint forces | |

| |

| |

| |

Friction | |

| |

| |

| |

Motion in a circle: centripetal force | |

| |

| |

| |

Motion in a circle at constant speed | |

| |

| |

| |

Tangential and radial components of acceleration | |

| |

| |

| |

Hybrid motion: the simple pendulum | |

| |

| |

| |

Angular quantities as vectors: the cross product | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Force fields | |

| |

| |

| |

Newton's law of universal gravitation | |

| |

| |

| |

Force fields | |

| |

| |

| |

The concept of flux | |

| |

| |

| |

Gauss' law for gravitation | |

| |

| |

| |

Motion in a constant uniform field: projectiles | |

| |

| |

| |

Mechanical work and energy | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy in a constant uniform field | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy in an inverse square law field | |

| |

| |

| |

Moment of a force: angular momentum | |

| |

| |

| |

Planetary motion: circular orbits | |

| |

| |

| |

Planetary motion: elliptical orbits and Kepler's laws | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Many-body interactions | |

| |

| |

| |

Newton's third law | |

| |

| |

| |

The principle of conservation of momentum | |

| |

| |

| |

Mechanical energy of a system of particles | |

| |

| |

| |

Particle decay | |

| |

| |

| |

Particle collisions | |

| |

| |

| |

The centre of mass of a system | |

| |

| |

| |

The two-body problem: reduced mass | |

| |

| |

| |

Angular momentum of a system of particles | |

| |

| |

| |

Conservation principles in physics | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Rigid body dynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Rigid bodies | |

| |

| |

| |

Rigid bodies in equilibrium: statics | |

| |

| |

| |

Torque | |

| |

| |

| |

Dynamics of rigid bodies | |

| |

| |

| |

Measurement of torque: the torsion balance | |

| |

| |

| |

Rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis: moment of inertia | |

| |

| |

| |

Calculation of moments of inertia: the parallel axis theorem | |

| |

| |

| |

Conservation of angular momentum of rigid bodies | |

| |

| |

| |

Conservation of mechanical energy in rigid body systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Work done by a torque: torsional oscillations: rotational power | |

| |

| |

| |

Gyroscopic motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Summary: connection between rotational and translational motions | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Relative motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Applicability of Newton's laws of motion: inertial reference frames | |

| |

| |

| |

The Galilean transformation | |

| |

| |

| |

The CM (centre-of-mass) reference frame | |

| |

| |

| |

Example of a noninertial frame: centrifugal force | |

| |

| |

| |

Motion in a rotating frame: the Coriolis force | |

| |

| |

| |

The Foucault pendulum | |

| |

| |

| |

Practical criteria for inertial frames: the local view | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Special relativity | |

| |

| |

| |

The velocity of light | |

| |

| |

| |

The principle of relativity | |

| |

| |

| |

Consequences of the principle of relativity | |

| |

| |

| |

The Lorentz transformation | |

| |

| |

| |

The Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction | |

| |

| |

| |

Time dilation | |

| |

| |

| |

Paradoxes in special relativity | |

| |

| |

| |

Relativistic transformation of velocity | |

| |

| |

| |

Momentum in relativistic mechanics | |

| |

| |

| |

Four-vectors: the energy-momentum 4-vector | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy-momentum transformations: relativistic energy conservation | |

| |

| |

| |

Relativistic energy: mass-energy equivalence | |

| |

| |

| |

Units in relativistic mechanics | |

| |

| |

| |

Mass-energy equivalence in practice | |

| |

| |

| |

General relativity | |

| |

| |

| |

Simultaneity: quantitative analysis of the twin paradox | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Continuum mechanics: mechanical properties of materials | |

| |

| |

| |

Dynamics of continuous media | |

| |

| |

| |

Elastic properties of solids | |

| |

| |

| |

Fluids at rest | |

| |

| |

| |

Elastic properties of fluids | |

| |

| |

| |

Pressure in gases | |

| |

| |

| |

Archimedes' principle | |

| |

| |

| |

Fluid dynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Viscosity | |

| |

| |

| |

Surface properties of liquids | |

| |

| |

| |

Boyle's law (Mariotte's law) | |

| |

| |

| |

A microscopic theory of gases | |

| |

| |

| |

The mole | |

| |

| |

| |

Interatomic forces: modifications to the kinetic theory of gases | |

| |

| |

| |

Microscopic models of condensed matter systems | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermal physics | |

| |

| |

| |

Friction and heating | |

| |

| |

| |

Temperature scales | |

| |

| |

| |

Heat capacities of thermal systems | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparison of specific heat capacities: calorimetry | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermal conductivity | |

| |

| |

| |

Convection | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermal radiation | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermal expansion | |

| |

| |

| |

The first law of thermodynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

Change of phase: latent heat | |

| |

| |

| |

The equation of state of an ideal gas | |

| |

| |

| |

Isothermal, isobaric and adiabatic processes: free expansion | |

| |

| |

| |

The Carnot cycle | |

| |

| |

| |

Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics | |

| |

| |

| |

The Helmholtz and Gibbs functions | |

| |

| |

| |

Microscopic interpretation of temperature | |

| |

| |

| |

Polyatomic molecules: principle of equipartition of energy | |

| |

| |

| |

Ideal gas in a gravitational field: the 'law of atmospheres' | |

| |

| |

| |

Ensemble averages and distribution functions | |

| |

| |

| |

The distribution of molecular velocities in an ideal gas | |

| |

| |

| |

Distribution of molecular speeds, momenta and energies | |

| |

| |

| |

Microscopic interpretation of temperature and heat capacity in solids | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Wave Motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Characteristics of wave motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Representation of a wave which is travelling in one dimension | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy and power in a wave motion | |

| |

| |

| |

Plane and spherical waves | |

| |

| |

| |

Huygen's principle: the laws of reflection and refraction | |

| |

| |

| |

Interference between waves | |

| |

| |

| |

Interference of waves passing through openings: diffraction | |

| |

| |

| |

Standing waves | |

| |

| |

| |

The Doppler effect | |

| |

| |

| |

The wave equation | |

| |

| |

| |

Waves along a string | |

| |

| |

| |

Waves in elastic media: longitudinal waves in a solid rod | |

| |

| |

| |

Waves in elastic media: sound waves in gases | |

| |

| |

| |

Superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies: wave and group velocities | |

| |

| |

| |

Other waveforms: Fourier analysis | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Introduction to quantum mechanics | |

| |

| |

| |

Physics at the beginning of the twentieth century | |

| |

| |

| |

The blackbody radiation problem | |

| |

| |

| |

The photoelectric effect | |

| |

| |

| |

The X-ray continuum | |

| |

| |

| |

The Compton effect: the photon model | |

| |

| |

| |

The de Broglie hypothesis: electron waves | |

| |

| |

| |

Interpretation of wave-particle duality | |

| |

| |

| |

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle | |

| |

| |

| |

The wavefunction: expectation values | |

| |

| |

| |

The Schrï¿½dinger (wave mechanical) method | |

| |

| |

| |

The free particle | |

| |

| |

| |

The time-independent Shrï¿½dinger equation: eigenfunctions and eigenvalues | |

| |

| |

| |

The infinite square potential well | |

| |

| |

| |

The potential step | |

| |

| |

| |

Other potential wells and barriers | |

| |

| |

| |

The simple harmonic oscillator | |

| |

| |

| |

Further implications of quantum mechanics | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Electric currents | |

| |

| |

| |

Electric currents | |

| |

| |

| |

Force between currents | |

| |

| |

| |

The unit of electric current | |

| |

| |

| |

Heating effect revisited: electrical resistance | |

| |

| |

| |

Strength of a power supply: emf | |

| |

| |

| |

Resistance of a circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Potential difference | |

| |

| |

| |

Effect of internal resistance | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparison of emfs: the potentiometer | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiloop circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

Kirchhoff's rules | |

| |

| |

| |

Comparison of resistances: the Wheatstone bridge | |

| |

| |

| |

Power supplies connected in parallel | |

| |

| |

| |

Resistivity | |

| |

| |

| |

Variation of resistance with temperature | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Electric fields | |

| |

| |

| |

The electric charge model | |

| |

| |

| |

Interpretation of electric current in terms of charge | |

| |

| |

| |

Electric fields: electric field strength | |

| |

| |

| |

Force between point charges: Coulomb's law | |

| |

| |

| |

Electric flux and electric flux density | |

| |

| |

| |

Electric fields due to systems of point charges | |

| |

| |

| |

Gauss' law for electrostatics | |

| |

| |

| |

Potential difference in electric fields: electric potential | |

| |

| |

| |

Acceleration of charged particles | |

| |

| |

| |

Dielectric materials | |

| |

| |

Capacitors | |

| |

| |

Capacitors in series and in parallel | |

| |

| |

Charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic fields | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetism | |

| |

| |

| |

The work of Ampï¿½re, Biot and Savart | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic pole strength | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic field strength | |

| |

| |

| |

Ampï¿½re's law | |

| |

| |

| |

The Biot-Savart law | |

| |

| |

| |

Applications of the Biot-Savart law | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic fields due to systems of poles | |

| |

| |

| |

Forces between magnets | |

| |

| |

| |

Forces between currents and magnets | |

| |

| |

| |

The permeability of vacuum | |

| |

| |

| |

Current loop in a magnetic field | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic dipoles and magnetic materials | |

| |

| |

| |

Moving coil meters and electric motors | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic fields due to moving charges | |

| |

| |

| |

Force on an electric charge in a magnetic field | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic dipole moments of charged particles in closed orbits | |

| |

| |

| |

Electric and magnetic fields in moving reference frames | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Electromagnetic induction: time-varying emfs | |

| |

| |

| |

The principle of electromagnetic induction | |

| |

| |

| |

Simple applications of electromagnetic induction | |

| |

| |

| |

Self-inductance | |

| |

| |

| |

The series L-R circuit | |

| |

| |

| |

Discharge of a capacitor through an inductor and resistor | |

| |

| |

| |

Time-varying emfs: mutual inductance: transformers | |

| |

| |

| |

Alternating current (a.c.) | |

| |

| |

| |

Alternating current transformers | |

| |

| |

| |

Resistance, capacitance and inductance in a.c. circuits | |

| |

| |

| |

The series L-C-R circuit: phasor diagrams | |

| |

| |

| |

Power in an a.c. circuit | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Maxwell's equations: electromagnetic radiation | |

| |

| |

| |

Reconsideration of the laws of electromagnetism: Maxwell's equations | |

| |

| |

| |

Plane electromagnetic waves | |

| |

| |

| |

Experimental observation of electromagnetic radiation | |

| |

| |

| |

The electromagnetic spectrum | |

| |

| |

| |

Polarisation of electromagnetic waves | |

| |

| |

| |

Energy, momentum and angular momentum in electromagnetic waves | |

| |

| |

| |

Reflection of electromagnetic waves at an interface between nonconducting media | |

| |

| |

| |

Electromagnetic waves in a conducting medium | |

| |

| |

| |

The photon model revisited | |

| |

| |

| |

Invariance of electromagnetism under the Lorentz transformation | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Optics | |

| |

| |

| |

Electromagnetic nature of light | |

| |

| |

| |

Coherence: the laser | |

| |

| |

| |

Diffraction at a single slit | |

| |

| |

| |

Two slit interference and diffraction: Young's double slit experiment | |

| |

| |

| |

Multiple slit interference: the diffraction grating | |

| |

| |

| |

Diffraction of X-rays: Bragg scattering | |

| |

| |

| |

The ray model: geometrical optics | |

| |

| |

| |

Reflection of light | |

| |

| |

| |

Image formation by spherical mirrors | |

| |

| |

| |

Refraction of light | |

| |

| |

| |

Refraction at successive plane interfaces | |

| |

| |

| |

Image formation by spherical lenses | |

| |

| |

| |

Image formation of extended objects: magnification | |

| |

| |

| |

Dispersion of light | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Atomic physics | |

| |

| |

| |

Atomic models | |

| |

| |

| |

The spectrum of hydrogen: the Rydberg formula | |

| |

| |

| |

The Bohr postulates | |

| |

| |

| |

The Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom | |

| |

| |

| |

The quantum mechanical (Schrï¿½dinger) solution of the one-electron atom | |

| |

| |

| |

The radial solutions of the lowest energy state of hydrogen | |

| |

| |

| |

Interpretation of the one-electron atom eigenfunctions | |

| |

| |

| |

Intensities of spectral lines: selection rules | |

| |

| |

| |

Quantisation of angular momentum | |

| |

| |

| |

Magnetic effects in one-electron atoms: the Zeeman effect | |

| |

| |

| |

The Stern-Gerlach experiment: electron spin | |

| |

| |

| |

The spin-orbit interaction | |

| |

| |

| |

Identical particles in quantum mechanics: the Pauli exclusion principle | |

| |

| |

| |

The periodic table: multielectron atoms | |

| |

| |

| |

The theory of multielectron atoms | |

| |

| |

| |

Further uses of the solutions of the one-electron atom | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Electrons in solids: quantum statistics | |

| |

| |

| |

Bonding in molecules and solids | |

| |

| |

| |

The classical free electron model of solids | |

| |

| |

| |

The quantum mechanical free electron model of solids: Fermi energy | |

| |

| |

| |

The electron energy distribution at 0 K | |

| |

| |

| |

Electron energy distributions at T > 0 K | |

| |

| |

| |

Specific heat and conductivity in the quantum free electron model | |

| |

| |

| |

The band theory of solids | |

| |

| |

| |

Semiconductors | |

| |

| |

| |

Junctions in conductors and semiconductors: p-n junctions | |

| |

| |

| |

The transistor | |

| |

| |

| |

The Hall effect | |

| |

| |

| |

Quantum statistics: systems of bosons | |

| |

| |

| |

Superconductivity | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Nuclear physics, particle physics and astrophysics | |

| |

| |

| |

Properties of atomic nuclei | |

| |

| |

| |

Nuclear binding energies | |

| |

| |

| |

Nuclear models | |

| |

| |

| |

Radioactivity | |

| |

| |

| |

a-, b- and g-decay | |

| |

| |

| |

Detection of radiation: units of radioactivity | |

| |

| |

| |

Nuclear reactions | |

| |

| |

| |

Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion | |

| |

| |

| |

Fission reactors | |

| |

| |

| |

Thermonuclear fusion | |

| |

| |

| |

Subnuclear particles | |

| |

| |

| |

The quark model | |

| |

| |

| |

The physics of stars | |

| |

| |

| |

The origin of the Universe | |

| |

| |

Worked examples | |

| |

| |

Problems | |

| |

| |

Answers to problems | |

| |

| |

| |

Mathematical rules and formulas | |

| |

| |

| |

Some fundamental physical constants | |

| |

| |

| |

Some astrophysical and geophysical data | |

| |

| |

Bibliography | |

| |

| |

Index | |

| |

| |

Inside front cover: Summary of notations used in text | |

| |

| |

Inside back cover: The periodic table (Appendix D) | |