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Chemical Sensors and Biosensors Fundamentals and Applications

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ISBN-10: 0470710667

ISBN-13: 9780470710661

Edition: 2012

Authors: Florinel-Gabriel Banica

List price: $218.00
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Description:

The book is evolved out of a lecture course given at the Norwegian Science and Technology since 1998, and will provide a description of the fundamentals of chemical sensors, with an emphasis on basic principles.Due attention will be paid to classical topics in the field but, at the same time, this book will highlight contemporary challenges. It will include recent advances caused by the advent of new concepts, materials and technologies, for example micro-electromechanical systems, nanotechnology and nanomaterials, quantum dots, bio-composites, molecular imprinting, lab-on-a-chip and microfluidics.Provisional TOC: Introduction; Chemical recognition – general features; Theoretical principles…    
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Book details

List price: $218.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Canada, Limited
Publication date: 10/4/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 576
Size: 6.61" wide x 9.61" long x 1.31" tall
Weight: 3.740
Language: English

Preface
Acknowledgements
List of Symbols
List of Acronyms xxxi
What are Chemical Sensors?
Chemical Sensors: Definition and Components
Recognition Methods
General Aspects
Ion Recognition
Recognition by Affinity Interactions
Recognition by Nucleic Acids
Recognition by Enzymes
Recognition by Cells and Tissues of Biological Origin
Gas and Vapor Sorption
Transduction Methods
General Aspects
Thermometric Transduction
Transduction Based on Mechanical Effects
Resistive and Capacitive Transduction
Electrochemical Transduction
Optical Transduction
Sensor Configuration and Fabrication
Sensor Calibration
Sensor Figures of Merit
Reliability of the Measurement
Selectivity and Specificity
Detection and Quantification Capabilities
Response Time
Sensor Arrays
Quantitative Analysis by Cross-Sensitive Sensor Arrays
Qualitative Analysis by Cross-Sensitive Sensor Arrays
Artificial Neural Network Applications in the Artificial Nose/Tongue
Outlook
Sensors in Flow Analysis Systems
Applications of Chemical Sensors
Environmental Applications of Chemical Sensors
Healthcare Applications of Chemical Sensors
Application of Chemical Sensors in the Food Industry, Agriculture and Biotechnology
Chemical Sensors in Defense Applications
Literature on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors
Organization of the Text
References
Protein Structure and Properties
Amino Acids
Chemical Structure of Proteins
Conformation of Protein Macromolecules
Noncovalent Chemical Bonds in Protein Molecules
Recognition Processes Involving Proteins
Outlook
References
Enzymes and Enzymatic Sensors
General
Enzyme Nomenclature and Classification
Enzyme Components and Cofactors
Some Enzymes with Relevance to Biosensors
Oxidases
Dehydrogenases
Hydrolases
Lyases
Outlook
Transduction Methods in Enzymatic Biosensors
Transduction Methods
Multienzyme Sensors
Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions
The Michaelis-Menten Mechanism
Other Mechanisms
Expressing the Enzyme Activity
pH Effect on Enzyme Reactions
Temperature Effect on Enzyme Reactions
Outlook
Enzyme Inhibition
Reversible Inhibition
Irreversible Inhibition
Enzymatic Sensors for Inhibitors: Design and Operation
Applications of Enzyme-Inhibition Sensors
Concluding Remarks
References
Mathematical Modeling of Enzymatic Sensors
Introduction
The Enzymatic Sensor Under External Diffusion Conditions
The Physical Model
The Mathematical Model
The Zero-Order Kinetics Case
The First-Order Kinetics Case
The Dynamic Range and the Limit of Detection Under External Diffusion Conditions
The Enzymatic Sensor Under Internal Diffusion Control
The Steady-State Response
The Transient Regime and the Response Time Under Internal Diffusion Conditions
The General Case
The Model
Effect of the Biot Number
Effect of Partition Constants and Diffusion Coefficients
Experimental Tests for the Kinetic Regime of an Enzymatic Sensor
Outlook
References
Materials and Methods in Chemical-Sensor Manufacturing
Introduction
Noncovalent Immobilization at Solid Surfaces
Covalent Conjugation
Zero-Length Crosslinkers
Bifunctional Crosslinkers
Immobilization by Protein Crosslinking
Supports and Support Modification
General Aspects
Natural Polymers
Synthetic Polymers
Coupling to Active Polymers
Coupling to Inactive Polymers
Inorganic Supports
Carbon Material Supports
Metal Supports
Semiconductor Supports
Affinity Reactions
Thin Molecular Layers
Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Compounds
Bilayer Lipid Membranes
Alternate Layer-by-Layer Assembly
Sol-Gel Chemistry Methods
Hydrogels
Physically Crosslinked Hydrogels
Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogels
Redox Hydrogels
Responsive Hydrogels
Conducting Polymers
Encapsulation
Entrapment in Mesoporous Materials
Polymer Membranes
Deposition of Polymers onto Solid Surfaces
Perm-Selective Membranes
Microfabrication Methods in Chemical-Sensor Technology
Spot Arraying
Thick-Film Technology
Thin-Film Techniques
Soft Lithography
Microcontact Printing of Biocompounds
Concluding Remarks
References
Affinity-Based Recognition
General Principles
Immunosensors
Antibodies: Structure and Function
Antibody-Antigen Affinity and Avidity
Analytical Applications
Label-Free Transduction Methods in Immunosensors
Label-Based Transduction Methods in Immunosensors
Enzyme Labels in Immunoassay
Immobilization Methods in Immunosensors
Immunoassay Formats
Protein and Peptide Microarrays
Biological Receptors
Artificial Receptors
Cyclodextrins and Host-Guest Chemistry
Calixarenes
Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs)
Outlook
References
Nucleic Acids in Chemical Sensors
Nucleic Acid Structure and Properties
Nucleic Acid Analogs
Nucleic Acids as Receptors in Recognition Processes
Hybridization: Polynucleotide Recognition
Recognition of Non-Nucleotide Compounds
Recognition by Aptamers
Immobilization of Nucleic Acids
Adsorption
Immobilization by Self-Assembly
Immobilization by Polymerization
Covalent Immobilization on Functionalized Surfaces
Coupling by Affinity Reactions
Polynucleotides-Nanoparticles Hybrids
Transduction Methods in Nucleic Acids Sensors
Label-Free Transduction Methods
Label-Based Transduction
DNA Amplification
DNA Microarrays
Outlook
References
Nanomaterial Applications in Chemical Sensors
Generals
Metallic Nanomaterials
Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles
Functionalization of Gold Nanoparticles
Applications of Metal Nanoparticles in Chemical Sensors
Carbon Nanomaterials
Structure of CNTs
Synthesis of CNTs
Chemical Reactivity and Functionalization
CNTApplications in Chemical Sensors
Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs)
Polymer and Inorganic Nanofibers
Magnetic Micro- and Nanoparticles
Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
Magnetic Nanoparticles
Magnetic Biosensors and Biochips
Magnetic Nanoparticles as Auxiliary Components in Biosensors
Outlook
Semiconductor Nanomaterials
Synthesis and Functionalization of Quantum Dots
Applications of Quantum Dots
Silica Nanoparticles
Synthesis, Properties, and Applications
Dendrimers
Properties and Applications
Summary
References
Thermochemical Sensors
Temperature Transducers
Resistive Temperature Transducers
Thermopiles
Enzymatic Thermal Sensors
Principles of Thermal Transduction in Enzymatic Sensors
Thermistor-Based Enzymatic Sensors
Thermopile-Based Enzymatic Sensors
Multienzyme Thermal Sensors
Outlook
Thermocatalytic Sensors for Combustible Gases
Structure and Functioning Principles
References
Potentiometric Sensors
Introduction
The Galvanic Cell at Equilibrium
Thermodynamics of Electrolyte Solutions
Thermodynamics of the Galvanic Cell 167 x Contents
Ion Distribution at the Interface of Two Electrolyte Solutions
Charge Distribution at the Junction of Two Electrolyte Solutions. The Diffusion Potential
Ion Distribution at an Aqueous/Semipermeable Membrane Interface
Potentiometric Ion Sensors - General
Sensor Configuration and the Response Function
Selectivity of Potentiometric Ion Sensors
The Response Range of Potentiometric Ion Sensors
Interferences by Chemical Reactions Occurring in the Sample
The Response Time of Potentiometric Ion Sensors
Outlook
Sparingly Soluble Solid Salts as Membrane Materials
Membrane Composition
Response Function and Selectivity
Glass Membrane Ion Sensors
Membrane Structure and Properties
Response Function and Selectivity
Chalcogenide Glass Membranes
Ion Sensors Based on Molecular Receptors. General Aspects
Liquid Ion Exchangers as Ion Receptors
Ion Recognition by Liquid Ion Exchangers
Charged Receptor Membranes
Response Function and Selectivity
Outlook
Neutral Ion Receptors (Ionophores)
General Principles
Chemistry of Ion Recognition by Neutral Receptors
Effect of Bonding Multiplicity, Steric, and Conformational Factors
Neutral Receptor Ion-Selective Membranes: Composition, Selectivity and Response Function
Neutral Noncyclic Ion Receptors