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Innovation in Wind Turbine Design

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ISBN-10: 0470699817

ISBN-13: 9780470699812

Edition: 2011

Authors: Peter Jamieson

List price: $73.95
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Description:

Innovation in Wind Turbine Design covers the basics of design and the reasons behind design choices, as well as the methodology for evaluating innovative systems and components, always referencing a state of the art system for comparison. Thus the reader is able to understand current technology and the reasoning behind progress to date, before assessing where it can go in the future. It discusses the basics, as well as how to apply existing engineering knowledge to further technology. Innovation in Wind Turbine Design is divided into three main sections: introduction, design background and technology evaluation. Section 1 reviews the evolution of modern wind technology and establishes the basis for evaluating standard and innovative designs. Section 2 reviews the optimization of rotor design, discusses wind energy conversion systems, drive trains, scaling issues and offshore wind turbines, and concludes with an overview of technology trends with a glimpse of possible future technology. Section 3 comprises a global view of the multitude of design options for wind turbine systems, the basis for comparative valuation and evaluation methodology, cost of energy assessment and includes a number of innovative examples, some from working experiences for commercial clients.
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Book details

List price: $73.95
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 8/19/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 316
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

Acknowledgements
Foreword
Preface
Introduction
Why Innovation?
The Challenge of Wind
The Specification of a Modern Wind Turbine
The Variability of the Wind
Commercial Wind Technology
Basis of Wind Technology Evaluation
Standard Design as Baseline
Basis of Technological Advantage
Security of Claimed Power Performance
Impact of Proposed Innovation
References
Design Background
Rotor Aerodynamic Theory
Introduction
Aerodynamic Lift
The Actuator Disc
Open Flow Actuator Disc
Axial Induction
Momentum
Generalised Actuator Disc Theory
The Force on a Diffuser
Generalised Actuator Disc Theory and Realistic Diffuser Design
Why a Rotor?
Basic Operation of a Rotor
Blade Element Momentum Theory
Momentum Equations
Blade Element Equations
Optimum Rotor Theory
The Power Coefficient, Cp
Thrust Coefficient
Out-of-Plane Bending Moment Coefficient
Generalised BEM
Limitations of Actuator Disc and BEM Theory
Actuator Disc Limitations
Wake Rotation and Tip Effect
Optimum Rotor Theory
Skewed Flow
Summary
References
Rotor Aerodynamic Design
Optimum Rotors and Solidity
Rotor Solidity and Ideal Variable Speed Operation
Solidity and Loads
Aerofoil Design Development
Sensitivity of Aerodynamic Performance to Planform Shape
Aerofoil Design Specification
References
Rotor Structural Interactions
Blade Design in General
Basics of Blade Structure
Simplified Cap Spar Analyses
Design for Minimum Mass with Prescribed Deflection
Design for Fatigue Strength: No Deflection Limits
The Effective t/c Ratio of Aerofoil Sections
Blade Design Studies: Example of a Parametric Analysis
Industrial Blade Technology
Design
Manufacturing
Design Development
References
Upscaling of Wind Turbine Systems
Introduction: Size and Size Limits
The 'Square-Cube' Law
Scaling Fundamentals
Similarity Rules for Wind Turbine Systems
Tip Speed
Aerodynamic Moment Scaling
Bending Section Modulus Scaling
Tension Section Scaling
Aeroelastic Stability
Self Weight Loads Scaling
Blade (Tip) Deflection Scaling
More Subtle Scaling Effects and Implications
Gearbox Scaling
Support Structure Scaling
Power/Energy Scaling
Electrical Systems Scaling
Control Systems Scaling
Scaling Summary
Analysis of Commercial Data
Blade Mass Scaling
Shaft Mass Scaling
Scaling of Nacelle Mass and Tower Top Mass
Tower Top Mass
Tower Scaling
Gearbox Scaling
Upscaling of VAWTs
Rated Tip Speed
Upscaling of Loads
Violating Similarity
Cost Models
Scaling Conclusions
References
Wind Energy Conversion Concepts
References
Drive Train Design
Introduction
Definitions
Objectives of Drive Train Innovation
Drive Train Technology Maps
Direct Drive
Hybrid Systems
Hydraulic Transmission
Efficiency of Drive Train Components
Introduction
Efficiency Over the Operational Range
Gearbox Efficiency
Generator Efficiency
Converter Efficiency
Transformer Efficiency
Fluid Coupling Efficiency
The Optimum Drive Train
Innovative Concepts for Power Take-Off
References
Offshore Wind Turbines
Design for Offshore
High Speed Rotor
Design Logic
Speed Limit
Rotor Configurations
Design Comparisons
'Simpler' Offshore Turbines
Offshore Floating Turbine Systems
References
Technology Trends Summary
Evolution
Consensus in Blade Number and Operational Concept
Divergence in Drive Train Concepts
Future Wind Technology
Introduction
Airborne Systems
New System Concepts
References
Technology Evaluation
Cost of Energy
The Approach to Cost of Energy
Energy: The Power Curve
Energy: Efficiency, Reliability, Availability
Efficiency
Reliability
Availability
Capital Costs
Operation and Maintenance
Overall Cost Split
Scaling Impact on Cost
Impact of Loads (Site Class)
References
Evaluation Methodology
Key Evaluation Issues
Fatal Flaw Analysis
Power Performance
The Betz Limit
The Pressure Difference across a Wind Turbine
Total Energy in the Flow
Drive Train Torque
Representative Baseline
Design Loads Comparison
Evaluation Example: Optimum Rated Power of a Wind Turbine
Evaluation Example: The Carter Wind Turbine and Structural Flexibility
Evaluation Example: Concept Design Optimisation Study
References
Design Themes
Optimum Blade Number
Energy Capture Comparisons
Blade Design Issues
Operational and System Design Issues
Multi Bladed Rotors
References
Pitch versus Stall
Stall Regulation
Pitch Regulation
Fatigue Loading Issues
Power Quality and Network Demands
Grid Code Requirements and Implications for Wind Turbine Design
References
HAWT or VAWT?
Introduction
VAWT Aerodynamics
Power Performance and Energy Capture
Drive Train Torque
Niche Applications for VAWTs
Status of VAWT Design
Problems
Solutions?
References
Free Yaw
Yaw System COE Value
Yaw Dynamics
Yaw Damping
Main Power Transmission
Operational Experience of Free Yaw Wind Turbines
Summary View
References
Multi Rotor Systems
Introduction
Standardisation Benefit and Concept Developments
Operational Systems
Scaling Economics
History Overview
Aerodynamic Performance of Multi Rotor Arrays
Recent Multi Rotor Concepts
Multi Rotor Conclusions
References
Design Themes Summary
Innovative Technology Examples
Adaptable Rotor Concepts
Rotor Operational Demands
Control of Wind Turbines
Adaptable Rotors
The Coning Rotor
Concept
Coning Rotor: Outline Evaluation - Energy Capture
Coning Rotor: Outline Evaluation - Loads
Concept Overview
Variable Diameter Rotor
References
A Shrouded Rotor
References
The Gamesa G10X Drive Train
Gyroscopic Torque Transmission
References
The Norsetek Rotor Design
References
Siemens Blade Technology
Stall Induced Vibrations
References
Magnetic Gearing and Pseudo-Direct Drive
Magnetic Gearing Technology
Pseudo-Direct Drive Technology
References
Summary and Concluding Comments
Index