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Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication

ISBN-10: 0470681985

ISBN-13: 9780470681985

Edition: 2012

Authors: Ian M. Hutchings, Graham D. Martin

List price: $110.00
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Description:

This book provides a comprehensive overview on the use of inkjet printing for digital fabrication, with contributions from academic researchers and leading names in industry. Opening chapters will cover the essential theory and principles involved in inkjet printing, and later chapters address current practice and problems.
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Book details

List price: $110.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 11/30/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 390
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

About the Editors
List of Contributors
Preface
Introduction to Inkjet Printing for Manufacturing
Introduction
Materials and Their Deposition by Inkjet Printing
General Remarks
Deposition of Metals
Deposition of Ceramics
Deposition of Polymers
Applications to Manufacturing
Direct Deposition
Inkjet Mask Printing
Inkjet Etching
Inverse Inkjet Printing
Printing onto a Powder Bed
Potential and Limitations
References
Fundamentals of Inkjet Technology
Introduction
Surface Tension and Viscosity
Dimensionless Groups in Inkjet Printing
Methods of Drop Generation
Continuous Inkjet (CIJ)
Single-Jet CIJ
Multiple-Jet CIJ
Drop-on-Demand (DOD)
Thermal DOD
Piezoelectric DOD
Other DOD Methods
Electrospray
Resolution and Print Quality
Grey-Scale Printing
Reliability
Satellite Drops
Print-Head and Substrate Motion
Inkjet Complexity
References
Dynamics of Piezoelectric Print-Heads
Introduction
Basic Designs of Piezo-Driven Print-Heads
Basic Dynamics of a Piezo-Driven Inkjet Print-Head (Single-Degree-of-Freedom Analysis)
Design Considerations for Droplet Emission from Piezo-Driven Print-Heads
Droplet Formation
Relation between Droplet Formation and Characteristic Frequency
Analysis of Droplet Formation (Positive Pulse)
Analysis of Droplet Formation (Negative Pulse)
Damping
Refilling
Capillary-Driven Refilling
Bernoulli Underpressure-Driven Refilling
Refilling Associated with Partial Filling of the Nozzle after Release of the Droplet
Deceleration Due to Elongational Effects Prior to Pinching Off
Summary
Multi-Cavity Helmholtz Resonator Theory
Long Duct Theory
Concluding Remarks
References
Fluids for Inkjet Printing
Introduction
Print-Head Considerations
Continuous Inkjet (CIJ)
Thermal Inkjet (TIJ)
Piezoelectric Drop-on-Demand (Piezo-DOD)
Physical Considerations in DOD Droplet Formation
Ink Design Considerations
Ink Classification
Aqueous Ink Technology
Inkjet Colorants
Colorant-Substrate Interactions
Polymeric Additives
Non-aqueous Ink Technologies
Oil-Based Pigment Inks
Phase Change Inks
100% Solids UV Cure
Solvent-Based Inks
Applications in Electronic Devices
Organic Conducting Polymers
Conjugated Organic Semiconductors
Inorganic Particles
References
When the Drop Hits the Substrate
Introduction
Stable Droplet Deposition
Deposition Maps
Impact of Millimetre-Size Droplets
Impact of Inkjet-Sized Droplets
Unstable Droplet Deposition
Capillarity-Driven Spreading
Droplet-Substrate Equilibrium
Capillarity-Driven Contact Line Motion
Contact Angle Hysteresis
Coalescence
Stages of Coalescence
Bridge Formation and Broadening
Droplet Relaxation
Coalescence and Pattern Formation
Stable Bead Formation
Unstable Bead Formation
Phase Change
Solidification
Evaporation
Summary
References
Manufacturing of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Introduction
Limitations and Opportunities in MEMS Fabrication
Benefits of Inkjet in MEMS Fabrication
Chemical Sensors
Optical MEMS Devices
Bio-MEMS Devices
Assembly and Packaging
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Conductive Tracks and Passive Electronics
Introduction
Vision
Drivers
Efficient Use of Raw Materials
Short-Run and Single-Example Production
Capital Equipment
Incumbent Technologies
Conductive Tracks and Contacts
What Is Conductive?
Conductive Tracks in the Third Dimension
Contacts
Raw Materials: Ink
Particles
Composition
Particle Shape
Particle Size
Dispersants
Carriers (Liquid Media)
Other Additives
Humectants
Surfactants
Adhesion Promoters
Biocides
Raw Materials: Conductive Polymers
Raw Materials: Substrates
Printing Processes
Postprocessing
Sintering
Protective Layers
Resistors
Capacitors
Other Passive Electronic Devices
Fuses, Circuit Breakers, and Switches
Inductors and Transformers
Batteries
Passive Filters
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
Thermal Management
Outlook
References
Printed Circuit Board Fabrication
Introduction
What Is a PCB?
How Is a PCB Manufactured Conventionally?
Imaging
Imaging Using Phototools
Laser Direct Imaging
PCB Design Formats
Inkjet Applications in PCB Manufacturing
Introduction
Legend Printing
Soldermask
Etch Resist
Introduction
Print Resolution and Acuity
Commercial Implementation of Inkjet Etch Resist
Future Possibilities
References
Active Electronics
Introduction
Applications of Inkjet Printing to Active Devices
OLEDs
Lighting
Displays
Other Displays
Energy Storage Using Batteries and Supercapacitors
Photovoltaics
Sensors
Transistors, Logic, and Memory
Contacts and Conductors
In Situ Synthesis and Patterning
Biological Applications
Future Outlook
References
Flat Panel Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Displays: A Case Study
Introduction
Development of Inkjet Printing for OLED Displays
Inkjet Requirements for OLED Applications
Introduction
Display Geometry
Containment and Solid Content
Ink Formulation and Process Control
Print Defects and Control
Conclusions and Outlook
Acknowledgements
References
Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Manufacturing: A Case Study
Introduction
Conventional RFID Technology
Introduction
RFID Standards and Classifications
135 kHz RFID
13.56 MHz RFID
900 MHz RFID and 2.4 GHz RFID
Summary of RFID Categories
RFID Using Silicon
Applications of Printing to RFID
Printed Antenna Structures for RFID
The Case for Printed Antennae
Printed RFID Antenna Technology
Summary of Status and Outlook for Printed Antennae
Printed RFID Tags
Introduction
Topology and Architecture of Printed RFID
Antenna Stage
Rectifier, Power Supply, and Clamp
Digital Section and Modulation Stage
Devices for Printed RFID
Electronic Materials for Printed RFID
Inkjet-Printed Transistors for RFID
Circuit Implementation Issues for Printed RFID
Printed RFID Demonstrators
Conclusions
References
Biopolymers and Cells
Introduction
Printers for Biopolymers and Cells
Printer Types
Piezoelectric Print-Heads
Thermal Inkjet Print-Heads
Comparison of Thermal and Piezoelectric Inkjet for Biopolymer Printing
Other Droplet Printers
Rapid Prototyping and Inkjet Printing
Ink Formulation
Introduction
Printed Resolution
Major Parameters: Viscosity and Surface Tension
Drying
Corrosion
Nanoparticle Inks
Biopolymer Inks
Coiled Biopolymers
Globular Proteins
Printing Cells
Cell-Directing Patterns
Cell-Containing Inks
Effects of Piezoelectric and Thermal Print-Heads on Cells
Cell Attachment and Growth
Biocompatibility in the Body
Reactive Inks
Substrates for Printing
Applications
Tissue Engineering
Bioreactors
Printed Tissues
Conclusions
References
Tissue Engineering: A Case Study
Introduction
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
The Third Dimension in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
The Current Approach for Manufacturing 3D Tissues
A New Approach of Direct 3D Fabrication with Live Cell Printing
A Feasibility Study of Live Cell Printing by Inkjet
3D Biofabrication by Gelation of Inkjet Droplets
2D and 3D Biofabrication by a 3D Bioprinter
Micro-Gel Beads
Micro-Gel Fiber and Cell Printing
2D and 3D Fabrication of Gel Sheets and Gel Mesh
Fabrication of 3D Gel Tubes
Multicolor 3D Biofabrication
Viscosity in Inkjet 3D Biofabrication
Use of Inkjet Technology for 3D Tissue Manufacturing
Resolution and DOD Color Printing
Direct Printing of Live Cells
High-Speed Printing
3D Fabrication Using Hydrogels
Linkage to Digital Data Sources
Applicability to Various Materials including Humoral Factors and Nanomaterials
Use of Pluripotent Stem Cells in Bioprinting
Summary and Future Prospects
Acknowledgements
References
Three-Dimensional Digital Fabrication
Introduction
Background to Digital Fabrication
Digital Fabrication and Jetted Material Delivery
Liquid-Based Fabrication Techniques
PolyJet™: Objet Geometries
Support Materials
System Characteristics
ProJet™: 3D Systems
Solidscape 3D Printers
Powder-Based Fabrication Techniques
ZPrinter™: Z Corporation
Other Powder-Based 3D Printers
Research Challenges
Future Trends
References
Current Inkjet Technology and Future Directions
The Inkjet Print-Head as a Delivery Device
Limitations of Inkjet Technology
Jetting Fluid Constraints
Control of Drop Volume
Variations in Drop Volume
Jet Directionality and Drop Placement Errors
Aerodynamic Effects
Impact and Surface Wetting Effects
Today's Dominant Technologies and Limitations
Thermal DOD Inkjet
Piezoelectric DOD Inkjet
Other Current Technologies
Continuous Inkjet
Electrostatic DOD
Acoustic Drop Ejection
Emerging Technologies
Stream
MEMS
Flextensional
Tonejet
Future Trends for Print-Head Manufacturing
Future Requirements and Directions
Customisation of Print-Heads for Digital Fabrication
Reduce Sensitivity of Jetting to Ink Characteristics
Higher Viscosities
Higher Stability and Reliability
Drop Volume Requirements
Lower Costs
Summary of Status of Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication
References
Index