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Anatomy and Physiology From Science to Life

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ISBN-10: 0470227583

ISBN-13: 9780470227589

Edition: 2nd 2010

Authors: Gail W. Jenkins, Christopher P. Kemnitz, Gerard J. Tortora

List price: $268.95
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The second edition is designed to help allied health professionals keep their focus, make connections, and improve their overall understanding of the anatomy and physiology they need to succeed in the field. Each chapter is written and developed into manageable modules of content that place a conceptual order on the facts and terminology. Relevant clinical stories draw readers in, keep them connected to the content and provide the platform for developing critical thinking skills. The focused narrative is accompanied by outstanding illustrations that help allied health professionals learn key concepts.
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Book details

List price: $268.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/14/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 1040
Size: 9.00" wide x 10.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 6.160
Language: English

An Introduction to the Human Body
The human body is composed of six levels of structural organization and contains eleven organ systems
The human body carries on basic life processes that distinguish it from nonliving objects.
Homeostasis is controlled through feedback systems
The human body is described using the anatomical position and specific terms
Body cavities are spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs.
Serous membranes line the walls of body cavities and cover the organs within them.
The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into regions or quadrants
The Chemical Level of Organization
Chemical elements are composed of small units called atoms
Atoms are held together by chemical bonds
Chemical reactions occur when atoms combine with or separate from other atoms
Inorganic compounds include water, salts, acids, and bases
Organic molecules are large carbon-based molecules that carry out complex functions in living systems
Carbohydrates function as building blocks and sources of energy
Lipids are important for cell membrane structure, energy storage, and hormone production
Proteins are amino acid complexes serving many diverse roles
Nucleic acids contain genetic material and function in protein synthesis
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the principal energy-transferring molecule in living systems
The Cellular Level of Organization
The principal Parts of a cell are the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus
The plasma membrane contains the cytoplasm and regulates exchanges with the extracellular environment
Transport of a substance across the plasma membrane occurs by both passive and active processes
Cytoplasm consists of the cytosol and organelles
The nucleus contains nucleoli and genes
Cells make proteins by transcribing and translating the genetic information contained in DNA
Cell division allows the replacement of cells and the production of new cells
The Tissue Level of Organization
Human body tissues can be classified as epithelial, connective, muscle, or nervous
Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines organs and body cavities, or secretes substances
Connective tissue binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, and helps provide immunity
Membranes cover the surface of the body, line body cavities, and cover organs
Muscle tissue generates the physical force needed to make body structures move
Nervous tissue consists of neurons and neuroglia
The ability of an injured tissue to repair itself depends on the extent of damage and the regenerative ability of the injured tissue
Body Systems
The Integumentary System
Skin is composed of a superficial epidermis and a deeper dermis, and is anchored by the hypodermis
The layers of the epidermis include the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
The dermis contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, sensory receptors, hair follicles, and glands
Skin color is a result of the pigments melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin
The functions of hair, skin glands, and nails include protection and body temperature regulation
Skin damage sets in motion a sequence of events that repairs the skin to its normal
Skin regulates body temperature, protects underlying tissues, provides cutaneous sensations, excretes body wastes, and synthesizes vitamin D
Introduction to the Skeletal System
Skeletal system functions include support, protection, movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, and energy storage
Bones are classified as long, short, flat, irregular, or sesamoid
Long bones have a diaphysis, a medullary cavity, epiphyses, metaphyses, and periosteum
Osseous tissue can be arranged as compact bone tissue or spongy bone tissue
Bones are richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves
The two types of bone formation are intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
Bones grow longer due to activity of the epiphyseal plate and increase in diameter by the addition of new osseous tissue around the outer surface
Bone remodeling renews osseous tissue, redistributes bone extracellular matrix, and repairs bone injuries
The Axial Skeleton
Bones of the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton have characteristic surface markings
The skull provides attachment sites for muscles and membranes, and protects and supports the brain and sense organs
The cranial bones include the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones
Facial bones include the nasal bones, maxillae, zygomatic bones, mandible, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and vomer
Unique features of the skull include the nasal septum, orbits, sutures, paranasal sinuses, and fontanels
The hyoid bone supports the tongue and attaches to tongue, pharynx, and larynx muscles
The vertebral column encloses and protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and is a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles of the back
A vertebra usually consists of a body, a vertebral arch, and several processes
Vertebrae in the different regions of the vertebral column vary in size, shape, nd detail
The thoracic cage encloses and protects vital organs in the thorax and upper abdomen and provides support for the bones of the shoulder girdles and upper limbs
The Appendicular Skeleton
Each pectoral girdle, which consists of a clavicle and scapula, attaches an upper limb to the axial skeleton
The bones of each upper limb include the humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
The pelvic girdle supports the vertebral column and pelvic viscera and attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton
Male pelves are generally larger, heavier, and have more prominent markings; female pelves are generally wider and shallower
The bones of each lower limb include the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
Joints are classified structurally as fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial; they are classified functionally as synarthroses, amphiarthroses, or diarthroses
Fibrous joints lack a synovial cavity and are held together by fibrous connective tissue
Cartilaginous joints lack a synovial cavity and are held together by cartilage
Articulating surfaces of bones at a synovial joint are covered with articular cartilage and enclosed within a synovial cavity
Synovial joints are described as planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, or ball-and-socket
Synovial joint movement terminology indicates the direction of movement or the relationships of body Parts during movement
The shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints provide examples of synovial joint components, classifications, and movements
Muscle Tissue
Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues differ in location, structure, and function
Muscle tissue produces movement, generates heat, and stabilizes body positions; it possesses electrical excitability, contractility, extensibility, and elasticity
Skeletal muscles are surrounded by connective tissues and are well supplied with nerves and blood vessels
Each skeletal muscle fiber is covered by a sarcolemma; each of its myofibrils is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum and contains sarcomeres
The neuromuscular junction is where a muscle action potential is initiated
An action potential releases calcium ions that allow thick filaments to bind to and pull thin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere
Muscle fiber tension is controlled by stimulation frequency and the number of motor units activated; changes in tension can produce isotonic or isometric contractions
Muscle fibers produce ATP from creatine phosphate, by anaerobic cellular respiration, and by aerobic cellular respiration
Skeletal muscle fibers are classified as slow oxidative fibers, fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers, or fast glycolytic fibers
Cardiac muscle tissue is found in the walls of the heart, and smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, and airways
The Muscular System
Skeletal muscles produce movement when the insertion is pulled toward the origin
Skeletal muscles are named based on size, shape, action, location, or attachments
Muscles of the head produce facial expressions, eyeball movement, and assist in biting, chewing, swallowing, and speech
Muscles of the neck assist in swallowing and speech, and allow balance and movement of the head
Muscles of the torso help protect the abdominal viscera, move the vertebral column, and assist breathing
Muscles of the pelvic floor and perineum support the pelvic viscera, function as sphincters, and assist in urination, erection, ejaculation, and defecation
Muscles inserting on the upper limb move and stabilize the pectoral girdle, and move the arm, forearm, and hand
Deep muscles of the back move the head and vertebral column
Muscles originating on the pelvic girdle or lower limb move the femur, leg, and foot
Introduction to the Nervous System
The nervous system maintains homeostasis and integrates all body activities
The nervous system is organized into the central and peripheral nervous systems
Neurons are responsible for most of the unique functions of the nervous system
Neuroglia support, nourish, and protect neurons and maintain homeostasis
Neurons communicate with other cells
Graded potentials are the first response of a neuron to stimulation
The action potential is an all-or-none electrical signal
Action potentials propagate from the trigger zone to axon terminals
The synapse is a special junction between neurons
PNS neurons have a greater capacity for repair and regeneration than CNS neurons
The Central Nervous System
The CNS consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and several protective structures
The CNS is nourished by blood and cerebrospinal fluid, which also provides mechanical and chemical protection
The cerebrum interprets sensory impulses, controls muscular movements, and functions in intellectual processes
The limbic system controls emotions, behavior, and memory
The cerebral cortex can be divided functionally into sensory areas, motor areas, and association areas
The diencephalon includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus
The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata of the brain stem serve as a relay station and control center
The cerebellum coordinates movements and helps maintain normal muscle tone, posture, and balance
The spinal cord gray matter receives sensory input and provides motor output through spinal nerves
The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses between spinal nerves and the brain, and contains reflex pathways
The Peripheral Nervous System
Nerves have three protective connective tissue coverings
Twelve pairs of cranial nerves distribute primarily to regions of the head and neck
Each spinal nerve branches into a posterior ramus, anterior ramus, meningeal branch, and rami communicantes
A reflex is produced by a reflex arc in response to a Particular stimulus
The autonomic nervous system produces involuntary movements
The ANS includes preganglionic neurons, autonomic ganglia and plexuses, and postganglionic neurons
ANS neurons release acetylcholine or norepinephrine, resulting in excitation or inhibition
The sympathetic division supports vigorous physical activity; the parasym pathetic division conserves body energy
Autonomic reflexes regulate controlled body conditions and are primarily integrated by the hypothalamus
Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems
Sensations arise as a result of stimulation, transduction, generation, and integration
Sensory receptors can be classified structurally, functionally, or by the type of stimulus detected
Somatic sensations include tactile sensations, thermal sensations, pain, and proprioception
The somatosensory and primary motor areas of the cerebral cortex unequally serve different body regions
Somatic sensory pathways relay information from sensory receptors to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum
Somatic motor pathways carry impulses from the brain to effectors
Wafefulness and memory are integrative functions of the brain
The Special Senses
Impulses for smell propagate along the olfactory nerve to the brain
Impulses for taste propagate along the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves to the brain
The eye is protected by eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, and a lacrimal apparatus
The eye is constructed of three layers and two chambers
Image formation involves refraction of light rays, change in lens shape, and constriction of the pupil
The neural pathway for light is photoreceptors → ganglion cells → optic nerve → primary visual cortex
The three main regions of the ear are the external, middle, and internal ear
The pathway of sound is tympanic membrane → ossicles → oval window → cochlea → vestibulocochlear nerve → primary auditory cortex
Impulses for equilibrium propagate along the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain
The Endocrine System
The endocrine system works more slowly than the nervous system, releasing hormones into the blood that can control virtually all body cells
The secretion of hormones is regulated by signals from the nervous system, chemical changes in the blood, and other hormones
The hypothalamus regulates anterior pituitary hormone secretion of seven important hormones
Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone originate in the hypothalamus and are stored in the posterior pituitary
The thyroid gland secretes the thyroid hormones thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin
The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ion levels
The adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens; the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
The pancreatic islets regulate blood glucose levels by secreting glucagon and insulin
The ovaries produce estrogens, progesterone, and inhibin; the testes produce testosterone and inhibin
The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which contributes to setting the body's biological clock
The Cardiovascular System: The Blood
Blood contains plasma and formed elements and transports essential substances through the body
Hemopoiesis is the production of formed elements
Mature red blood cells are biconcave cells containing hemoglobin
Red blood cells have a life cycle of 120 days
Erythropoiesis is the process of red blood cell formation
Blood is categorized into groups based on surface antigens
White blood cells combat inflammation and infection
Platelets reduce blood loss from damaged vessels
Hemostasis is the sequence of events that stops bleeding from a damaged blood vessel
The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
The heart is located in the mediastinum and has a muscular wall covered by pericardium
The heart has four chambers, two upper atria and two lower ventricles
Heart valves ensure one-way flow of blood
The heart pumps blood to the lungs for oxygenation, then pumps oxygen-rich blood throughout the body
The cardiac conduction system coordinates heart contractions for effective pumping
The electrocardiogram is a record of electrical activity associated with each heartbeat
The cardiac cycle represents all the events associated with one heartbeat
Cardiac output is the blood volume ejected by a ventricle each minute
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels
Most blood vessel walls have three distinct tissue layers
Blood ejected from the heart flows through elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and then arterioles
Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels that function in exchange between blood and interstitial fluid
Venules and veins return blood to the heart
Blood flow occurs from regions of higher pressure to those of lower pressure
Blood pressure is regulated by neural and hormonal negative feedback systems
Measurement of the pulse and blood pressure are two ways to assess the functioning of the cardiovascular system
The two main circulatory routes are the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation
Systemic arteries carry blood from the heart to all body organs except the lungs
Systemic veins return blood to the heart from all body organs except the lungs
The Lymphatic System and Immunity
The lymphatic system drains interstitial fluid, transports dietary lipids, and protects against invasion
Lymph flows through lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, and lymph nodes
The lymphatic organs and tissues include the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphatic nodules
Innate immunity includes external physical and chemical barriers and various internal defenses
Adaptive immunity involves the production of a specific lymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen
In cell-mediated immunity cytotoxic T cells directly attack target cells
In antibody-mediated immunity, antibodies specifically target a Particular antigen
The complement system destroys microbes through phagocytosis, cytolysis, and inflammation
Immunological memory results in a more intense secondary response to an antigen
The Respiratory System
Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system through the nasal cavities of the nose and then through the pharynx
Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system from the larynx to alveoli
Inhalation and exhalation result from pressure changes caused by muscle contraction and relaxation
Important measurements of lung volumes and capacities include tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume, and lung capacities
Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse into or out of the blood based on Partial pressure gradients and solubility
Respiration occurs between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries and between systemic blood capillaries and tissue cells
Oxygen is primarily transported attached to hemoglobin, while carbon dioxide is transported in three different ways
The basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by the respiratory center in the brain stem
Respiration may be modified by cortical influences, chemical stimuli, proprioceptor input; and the inflation reflex
The overall acid-base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids
The Digestive System
The GI tract is a continuous multilayered tube extending from the mouth to the anus
The mouth lubricates and begins digestion of food, and maneuvers it to the pharynx for swallowing
Swallowing consists of voluntary oral, involuntary pharyngeal, and involuntary esophageal stages
The stomach mechanically breaks down the bolus and mixes it with gastric secretions
The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, the liver secretes bile, and the gallbladder stores and concentrates bile
In the small intestine, chyme mixes with digestive juices from the small intestine, pancreas, and liver
In the large intestine, the final secretion and absorption of nutrients occur as chyme moves toward the rectum
Digestive activities occur in three overlapping phases: cephalic, gastric, and intestinal
Food molecules supply energy for life processes and serve as building blocks for complex molecules
Metabolism includes the catabolism and anabolism of molecules
The Urinary System
The kidneys regulate the composition of the blood, produce hormones, and excrete wastes and foreign substances
After blood is filtered in the renal cortex, the resulting urine travels through the renal medulla, calyces, and renal pelvis
Each of the nephrons consists of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule
The functions of the nephrons and collecting ducts are glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption
Unlike other components of the blood, water and solutes easily pass through the filtration membrane during glomerular filtration
Tubular reabsorption reclaims substances from the filtrate, while tubular secretion discharges substances not needed by the body
Four hormones regulate tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
Antidiuretic hormone affects the concentration of urine produced by the kidneys
The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder where it is stored until micturition
The kidneys help maintain the overall fluid and acid-base balance of the body
The Reproductive Systems and Development
The scrotum supports and regulates the temperature of the testes, which produce spermatozoa
Sperm are transported from the testes through the epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and urethra
After a secondary oocyte is discharged from an ovary, it may undergo fertilization and implantation in the uterus
The vagina is a passageway for childbirth; the mammary glands secrete milk
The female reproductive cycle includes the ovarian and uterine cycles
The zygote divides into a morula and then a blastocyst that implants in the endometrium of the uterus
During the embryonic period, the embryonic membranes and most major organs develop
During pregnancy the uterus expands, maternal gastrointestinal tract organs are displaced, and the ureters and urinary bladder are compressed
Labor includes dilation of the cervix and expulsion of the fetus and placenta
Milk production and ejection are influenced by prolactin, estrogens, progesterone, and oxytocin