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Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism

ISBN-10: 0470091851

ISBN-13: 9780470091852

Edition: 2011

Authors: Donald MacLaren, James Morton

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How do our muscles produce energy for exercise and what are the underlying biochemical principles involved? These are questions that students need to be able to answer when studying for a number of sport related degrees. This can prove to be a difficult task for those with a relatively limited scientific background. Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism addresses this problem by placing the primary emphasis on sport, and describing the relevant biochemistry within this context.The book opens with some basic information on the subject, including an overview of energy metabolism, some key aspects of skeletal muscle structure and function, and some simple biochemical concepts. It continues by looking at the three macromolecules which provide energy and structure to skeletal muscle - carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. The last section moves beyond biochemistry to examine key aspects of metabolism - the regulation of energy production and storage. Beginning with a chapter on basic principles of regulation of metabolism it continues by exploring how metabolism is influenced during high-intensity, prolonged, and intermittent exercise by intensity, duration, and nutrition.Key Features:A clearly written, well presented introduction to the biochemistry of muscle metabolism.Focuses on sport to describe the relevant biochemistry within this context.In full colour throughout, it includes numerous illustrations, together with learning objectives and key points to reinforce learning.Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism will prove invaluable to students across a range of sport-related courses, who need to get to grips with how exercise mode, intensity, duration, training status and nutritional status can all affect the regulation of energy producing pathways and, more important, apply this understanding to develop training and nutrition programmes to maximise athletic performance.
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Book details

Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 12/9/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 264
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

Basic Muscle Physiology and Energetics
Energy sources for muscular activity
Adenosine triphosphate: the energy currency
Energy continuum
Energy supply for muscle contraction
Energy systems and running speed
Why can't a marathon be sprinted?
Energy sources and muscle
Can muscle use protein for energy?
Key points
Skeletal muscle structure and function
Skeletal muscle structure
Gross anatomical structure
The muscle fibre
Muscle contraction
Propagation of the action potential
Excitation-contraction coupling
The sliding filament mechanism
Muscle fibre types
General classification of muscle fibres
Muscle fibre distribution
Muscle fibre recruitment
Muscles in action
Types of muscle contraction
The twitch contraction
The length-tension relationship
Tetanus contractions
Force-velocity relationship
Muscle fatigue
Key points
Biochemical concepts
Organization of matter
Matter and elements
Atoms and atomic structure
Atomic number and mass number
Atomic mass
Ions, molecules, compounds and macronutrients
Chemical bonding
Ionic bonds
Covalent bonds
Molecular formulae and structures
Functional groups
Chemical reactions, ATP and energy
Units of energy
Types of chemical reactions
General functions of water
Water as a solvent
Solutions and concentrations
Acid-base balance
Acids, bases and salts
pH Scale
Cell structure
The plasma membrane
The nucleus
Cytoplasm and organelles
Key points
Fundamentals of Sport and Exercise Biochemistry
Protein function
General protein function
Amino acids
Amino acid structure
Protein structure
Primary structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
Quaternary structure
Proteins as enzymes
Mechanisms of enzyme action
Factors affecting rates of enzymatic reactions
Coenzymes and cofactors
Classification of enzymes
Regulation of enzyme activity
Protein turnover
Overview of protein turnover
DNA structure
The genetic code
Amino acid metabolism
Free amino acid pool
Branched chain amino acids
Glucose-alanine cycle
The urea cycle
Key points
Relevance of carbohydrates for sport and exercise
Types and structure of carbohydrates
Disaccharides and polysaccharides
Metabolism of carbohydrates
Lactate metabolism
The 'link' reaction; production of acetyl-CoA
The TCA (or Krebs) cycle
Electron transport chain
Oxidative phosphorylation
Calculation of ATP generated in glucose oxidation
Overview of glucose oxidation
Fructose metabolism
Key points
Relevance of lipids for sport and exercise
Structure of lipids
Classification of lipids
Compound lipids
Derived lipids
Metabolism of lipids
Ketone body formation
Formation of fatty acids
Triglyceride synthesis
Key points
Metabolic Regulation in Sport and Exercise
Principles of metabolic regulation
How are catabolic and anabolic reactions controlled?
Peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and regulation
Adrenaline activation of glycogenolysis
Adrenaline activation of lipolysis
Insulin activation of glycogen synthase
Insulin inhibition of lipolysis
Insulin stimulation of protein synthesis
Steroid hormones and regulation
Allosteric effectors
Regulation of glycogen phosphorylase
Regulation of PFK
Regulation of PDH
Regulation of CPT1
AMPK as a metabolic regulator
Key points
High-intensity exercise
Overview of energy production and metabolic regulation in high-intensity exercise
Definition of high-intensity exercise
Energy production during high-intensity exercise
Evidence of energy sources used in HIE
Metabolic regulation during high-intensity exercise
Effects of exercise duration
Effects of nutritional status
Can nutritional ergogenic aids help HIE?
Effects of training
Mechanisms of fatigue
Reduced ATP
Reduced PCr
Increased P<sub>i</sub>
Lactate and H<sup>+</sup>
Key points
Endurance exercise
Overview of energy production and metabolic regulation in endurance exercise
Definition and models of endurance exercise
Energy production in endurance exercise
Overview of metabolic regulation in endurance exercise
Effects of exercise intensity
CHO metabolism
Lipid metabolism
Effects of exercise duration
Effects of nutritional status
CHO-loading and muscle glycogen availability
Fat-loading strategies
Pre-exercise and during-exercise CHO ingestion
Pre-exercise FFA availability
Effects of training status
CHO metabolism
Lipid metabolism
Protein metabolism
Mechanisms of fatigue
Key points
High-intensity intermittent exercise
Overview of energy production in intermittent exercise
Definition and models of intermittent exercise
Energy systems utilized in intermittent exercise
Metabolic regulation in intermittent exercise
Effects of manipulating work-rest intensity and ratio
Effects of nutritional status
Muscle glycogen availability
Pre-exercise CHO ingestion
CHO ingestion during exercise
Muscle adaptations to interval training
Mechanisms of fatigue
Carbohydrate availability
PCr depletion
Extracellular potassium
Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
P<sub>i</sub> accumulation and impaired Ca<sup>2+</sup> release
Key points
References and suggested readings