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Organic Chemistry of Explosives

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ISBN-10: 0470029676

ISBN-13: 9780470029671

Edition: 2007

Authors: Jai Prakash Agrawal, Robert Hodgson

List price: $223.95
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Description:

Organic Chemistry of Explosives is the first text to bring together the essential methods and routes used for the synthesis of organic explosives in a single volume. Assuming no prior knowledge, the book discusses everything from the simplest mixed acid nitration of toluene, to the complex synthesis of highly energetic caged nitro compounds. Reviews laboratory and industrial methods, which can be used to introduce aliphatic C-nitro, aromatic C-nitro, N-nitro, and nitrate ester functionality into organic compounds Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method or route, with scope, limitations, substrate compatibility and other important considerations Features…    
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Book details

List price: $223.95
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/5/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 416
Size: 6.93" wide x 9.96" long x 1.13" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Jai Prakash Agrawal is the former Director of Materials of the Indian Defence Research and Development Organization. He obtained his PhD in Chemistry from the Gorakhpur University, India, and did postdoctoral work at the University of Saint-Etienne, France, and at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge, UK. In recognition of his achievements Dr. Agrawal was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, London. The focus of his scientific and professional career is on research and development in the field of propellants, explosives and inhibitory materials. Together with Robert Hodgson he has authored the book "Organic Chemistry of Explosives", John Wiley & Sons.

Max Weber, a German political economist, legal historian, and sociologist, had an impact on the social sciences that is difficult to overestimate. According to a widely held view, he was the founder of the modern way of conceptualizing society and thus the modern social sciences. His major interest was the process of rationalization, which characterizes Western civilization---what he called the "demystification of the world." This interest led him to examine the three types of domination or authority that characterize hierarchical relationships: charismatic, traditional, and legal. It also led him to the study of bureaucracy; all of the world's major religions; and capitalism, which he…    

Foreword
Preface
Abbreviations
Acknowledgements
Background
Synthetic Routes to Aliphatic C-Nitro Functionality
Introduction
Aliphatic C-nitro compounds as explosives
Direct nitration of alkanes
Addition of nitric acid, nitrogen oxides and related compounds to unsaturated bonds
Nitric acid and its mixtures
Nitrogen dioxide
Dinitrogen pentoxide
Nitrous oxide and dinitrogen trioxide
Other nitrating agents
Halide displacement
Victor Meyer reaction
Modified Victor Meyer reaction
Ter Meer reaction
Displacements using nitronate salts as nucleophiles
Oxidation and nitration of C-N bonds
Oxidation and nitration of oximes
Oxidation of amines
Nitration of nitronate salts
Oxidation of pseudonitroles
Oxidation of isocyanates
Oxidation of nitrosoalkanes
Kaplan-Shechter reaction
Nitration of compounds containing acidic hydrogen
Alkaline nitration
Acidic nitration
Oxidative dimerization
Addition and condensation reactions
1,2-Addition reactions
1,4-Addition reactions
Mannich reaction
Henry reaction
Derivatives of polynitroaliphatic alcohols
Miscellaneous
1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethylenes
Other routes to aliphatic nitro compounds
Selective reductions
Chemical stability of polynitroaliphatic compounds
Reactions with mineral acids
Reactions with base and nucleophiles
References
Energetic Compounds 1: Polynitropolycycloalkanes
Caged structures as energetic materials
Cyclopropanes and spirocyclopropanes
Cyclobutanes and their derivatives
Cubanes
Homocubanes
Prismanes
Adamantanes
Polynitrobicycloalkanes
Norbomanes
Bicyclo[3.3.0]octane
Bicyclo[3.3,1]nonane
References
Synthetic Routes to Nitrate Esters
Nitrate esters as explosives
Nitration of the parent alcohol
O-Nitration with nitric acid and its mixtures
O-Nitration with dinitrogen tetroxide
O-Nitration with dinitrogen pentoxide
O-Nitration with nitronium salts
Transfer nitration
Other O-nitrating agents
Nucleophilic displacement with nitrate anion
Metathesis between alkyl halides and silver nitrate
Decomposition of nitratocarbonates
Displacement of sulfonate esters with nitrate anion
Displacement with mercury (I) nitrate
Nitrate esters from the ring-opening of strained oxygen heterocycles
Ring-opening nitration of epoxides
1,3-Dinitrate esters from the ring-opening nitration of oxetanes with dinitrogen pentoxide
Other oxygen heterocycles
Nitrodesilylation
Additions to alkenes
Nitric acid and its mixtures
Nitrogen oxides
Metal salts
Halonitroxylation
Deamination
Miscellaneous methods
Synthetic routes to some polyols and their nitrate ester derivatives
Energetic nitrate esters
References
Synthetic Routes to Aromatic C-Nitro Compounds
Introduction
Polynitroarylenes as explosives
Nitration
Nitration with mixed acid
Substrate derived reactivity
Effect of nitrating agent and reaction conditions on product selectivity
Other nitrating agents
Side-reactions and by-products from nitration
Nitrosation-oxidation
Nitramine rearrangement
Reaction of diazonium salts with nitrite anion
Oxidation of arylamines, arylhydroxylamines and other derivatives
Oxidation of arylamines and their derivatives
Oxidation of arylhydroxylamines and their derivatives
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution
Displacement of halide
Nitro group displacement and the reactivity of polynitroarylenes
Displacement of other groups
Synthesis of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB)
The chemistry of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)
Conjugation and thermally insensitive explosives
References
Synthetic Routes to N-Nitro Functionality
Introduction
Nitramines, nitramides and nitrimines as explosives
Direct nitration of amines
Nitration under acidic conditions
Nitration with nonacidic reagents
Nitration of chloramines
Nitration of dialkylchloramines
Nitration of alkyldichloramines
N-Nitration of amides and related compounds
Nitration with acidic reagents
Nitration with nonacidic reagents
Nitrolysis
Nitrolysis of amides and their derivatives
Nitrolysis of N-alkyl bonds
Nitrolysis of nitrosamines
Nitrative cleavage of other nitrogen bonds
Ring-opening nitration of strained nitrogen heterocycles
Aziridines
Azetidines
Nitrosamine oxidation
Hydrolysis of nitramides and nitroureas
Dehydration of nitrate salts
Other methods
Primary nitramines as nucleophiles
1,4-Michael addition reactions
Mannich condensation reactions
Condensations with formaldehyde
Nucleophilic displacement reactions
Aromatic nitramines
The nitrolysis of hexamine
The synthesis of RDX
The synthesis of HMX
Effect of reaction conditions on the nitrolysis of hexamine
Other nitramine products from the nitrolysis of hexamine
References
Energetic Compounds 2: Nitramines and Their Derivatives
Cyclopropanes
Cyclobutanes
Azetidines - 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ)
Cubane-based nitramines
Diazocines
Bicycles
Caged heterocycles - isowurtzitanes
Heterocyclic nitramines derived from Mannich reactions
Nitroureas
Other energetic nitramines
Energetic groups
Dinitramide anion
Alkyl N,N-dinitramines
N-Nitroimides
References
Energetic Compounds 3: N-Heterocycles
Introduction
5-Membered rings - 1N - pyrroles
5-Membered rings - 2N
Pyrazoles
Imidazoles
1,3,4-Oxadiazoles
1,2,5-Oxadiazoles (furazans)
Benzofurazans
Furoxans
Benzofuroxans
5-Membered rings - 3N
Triazoles
Triazolones
Benzotriazoles
5-Membered rings - 4N
6-Membered rings - 1N - pyridines
6-Membered rings - 2N
6-Membered rings - 3N
6-Membered rings - 4N
Dibenzotetraazapentalenes
References
Miscellaneous Explosive Compounds
Organic azides
Alkyl azides
Aromatic azides
Peroxides
Diazophenols
Diazophenols from the diazotization of aminophenols
Diazophenols from the rearrangement of o-nitroarylnitramines
Nitrogen-rich compounds from guanidine and its derivatives
References
Dinitrogen Pentoxide - An Eco-Friendly Nitrating Agent
Introduction
Nitrations with dinitrogen pentoxide
The chemistry of dinitrogen pentoxide
Preparation of dinitrogen pentoxide
C-nitration
W-nitration
Nitrolysis
O-nitration
Ring cleavage nitration
Selective O-nitration
Glycidyl nitrate and NIMMO - batch reactor verses flow reactor
Synthesis of the high performance and eco-friendly oxidizer - ammonium dinitramide
References
Index