Grammar for Teachers A Guide to American English for Native and Non-Native Speakers

ISBN-10: 0387763317

ISBN-13: 9780387763316

Edition: 2008

Authors: Andrea DeCapua

List price: $69.95
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Description:

The purpose of Grammar for Teachers is to encourage readers to develop a solid understanding of the use and function of grammatical structures in American English. It approaches grammar from a descriptive rather than a prescriptive approach; however, throughout Grammar for Teachers differences between formal and informal language, and spoken and written English are discussed. Grammar for Teachers avoids jargon or excessive use of technical terminology and reviews essential grammar structures clearly and concisely. The text encourages users to tap into their own, often subconscious, knowledge of the grammar of English and to make it a conscious knowledge they can apply to their own varied teaching settings. Grammar for Teachers emphasizes looking at grammar from the perspective of learners of English, an approach that allows teachers to better appreciate the language difficulties learners of English face in ESL or mainstream classrooms. Discussions of areas of difficulties for learners of English are included throughout the text. Grammar for Teachers makes the study of grammar interesting and relevant by presenting grammar in context and by using authentic material from a wide variety of sources, including magazines, newspapers, children's books, bestsellers, works of literature, and academic prose. In each chapter, the numerous Discovery Activities engage users in exploring the different elements of grammar and in considering how these elements work together to form meaningful units. The subsequent discussion of each Discovery Activity allows users to explore specific elements of grammar on their own. At the end of each chapter, additional Practice Activities ask users toapply the grammar concepts presented in each chapter. Included in the Practice Activities are samples of relevant learner errors and error analysis exercises.
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Book details

List price: $69.95
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 1/31/2008
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 444
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

What is Grammar?
Introduction
Grammar as a Set of Rules
Language and Change
Linguists and Grammar
Language is Rule-Governed
Language as a Set of Rules versus Language as Rule-Governed
Prescriptive versus Descriptive Grammar
Prescriptive Grammar
Descriptive Grammar
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 1 Discovery Activities
Morphology
Introduction
Word Classes
Context and Function
Word Plays and Context: An Additional Illustration
Parts of Speech or Lexical Categories
Open Word Classes
Closed Word Classes
Overview: Major Parts of Speech
Nouns
Adjectives
Verbs
Adverbs
Morphology
Bound and Free Morphemes
Derivational and Inflectional Morphemes
Derivational Morphemes
Inflectional Morphemes
Redundancy in Language
Summary
Practice Activities
The Noun Phrase
Introduction
Identifying Nouns
Context and Function
Semantic Clues
Structural Clues
Derivational Clues
Morphological Clues
Different Types of Nouns
Count and Noncount Nouns
Crossover Nouns
Structure Words that Signal Nouns
Demonstratives
Quantifiers
Pronouns
Discovery Activity 11
Types of Pronouns by Function
Subject Pronouns
Object Pronouns
Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives
Reflexive Pronouns
Indefinite Pronouns
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 3 Discovery Activities
Adjectives and Adverbs
Introduction
Adjectives
Identification of Adjectives
Semantic Clues
Morphological Clues
Derivational
Inflectional
Structural Clues
Identifying Adjectives
Order of Adjectives
Adjective Types
Special Types of Adjectives
Nouns Functioning as Adjectives
Participial Adjectives
Adverbs
Different Subclasses of Adverbs
Frequency Adverbs
Time and Place Adverbs
The ""Other"" Adverbs
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 4 Discovery Activities
Introduction to Verbs and Verb Phrases
Introduction
Identifying Verbs
Semantic Clues
Morphological Clues
Derivational
Inflectional
Structural Clues
Main Verbs versus Auxiliary Verbs
The Primary Auxiliary Verbs Have, Be, Do
Do as a Verb Helper
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Transitive Verbs
Intransitive Verbs
Di-transitive Verbs
Intransitive Verbs and Complements
Verbs that are Both Transitive and Intransitive
Verbs Followed by Infinitives and Gerunds
Verb/Gerund Variations
Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal Verbs versus Verb + Preposition/Adverb
Testing for Phrasal Verbs
Types of Phrasal Verbs
Intransitive Inseparable
Transitive Inseparable
Transitive Separable
Transitive Inseparable with 2 Prepositions/Adverbs
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 5 Discovery Activities
Time, Tense, and Aspect of Verbs
Introduction
Verbs and Inflections
Time, Tense, and Aspect
Present
Simple Present
Present Progressive
Past
Simple Past
Past Progressive
Future
Will<sup>4</sup>
Be Going To
Discovery Activity
Present Progressive for the Future
Future Progressive
Perfect
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Future Perfect
Present Perfect Progressive, Past Perfect Progressive, Future Perfect Progressive
Summary
First Auxiliary Rule for Negative Statements and Questions
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 6 Discovery Activities
Modal Auxiliary Verbs and Related Structures
Introduction
The ""Pure"" Modals
Modal Auxiliaries versus Primary Auxiliaries
The Modal Auxiliaries
Modal Meaning: Ability
Modal Meaning: Permission and Polite Requests
Modal Meaning: Possibility or Probability
Modal and Related Structures Meaning: Necessity or Obligation
Modal Meaning: Prohibition
Modal and Related Structure Meaning: Advice or Suggestion
Modal Meaning: Expectation
Modal Meaning: Unfulfilled Expectation, Mistake
Would and the Conditional
The Many Uses of Would
Modals and ESL/EFL Learners
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 7 Discovery Activities
Basic Sentence Patterns and Major Variations
Introduction
Types of Sentence Constituents
Noun Phrases and Prepositional Phrases
Verb Phrases
Adjective and Adverb Phrases
Questions
Yes/No Questions
Wh-Questions
Discovery Activity 4
Passive
The ""by-phrase""
The Passive and Tense
The Passive versus the Active
Explaining Passive Formation
Understanding Passive Use
Get
Substitution
Do
Substitution and First Auxiliary Rule
Substitution and Inversion
Summary
Practice Activities
Optional Follow Up
Answer Key: Chapter 8 Discovery Activities
Discussion: Sentence Problem
Compound Sentences and Introduction to Complex Sentences: Adverbial Clauses
Introduction
Clauses versus Phrases
Compound Sentences
Coordinators
Transition Words or Phrases
Complex Sentences
Complex Sentences and Multiple Subordinate Clauses
Subordinate Clauses and Word Order
GLUE
Types of Complex Clauses
Adverbial Clauses of Time
When and While
Whenever
Until
Adverbial Clauses of Contrast
Unexpected Result
Direct Opposition
Adverbial Clauses of Place
Adverbial Clauses of Cause
Adverbial Clauses of Result
Adverbial Clause of Purpose
Adverbial Clauses of Condition
Real Conditions
Present Unreal Conditions
Past Unreal Conditions
Conditional Sentences Without ""If""
Mixed Time
Adverbial Clauses of Manner
Reduced Adverbial Clauses
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 9 Discovery Activities
Complex Sentences Continued Relative Clauses
Introduction
The Relative Pronouns
Two Types of Relative Clauses: Essential and Nonessential
Which versus That
Whose
Relative Pronouns as Subjects and Objects
Who versus whom
Omission of Relative Pronouns
Relative Adverbs
Reduced Relative Clauses
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 10 Discovery Activities
Complex Sentences Continued: Noun Clauses
Introduction
Noun Clauses
That Noun Clauses
Verb + That Noun Clause
Different Verb + Noun Clause Patterns
Other Noun Clause Patterns
Omission of That
The Use of the Simpleor Base Verb in That Noun Clauses
The Different Functions of That
Distinguishing Relative Clauses and Noun Clauses with That
Noun Clauses Derived from Questions
Wh-Question Words
Yes/No Questions and Noun Clauses
Reported Speech
Statements
Questions
Other Patterns in Reported Speech
Imperatives
Exclamations
Formal Sequencing of Verb Tenses
Pronoun and Other Changes
Say versus Tell
Reported Speech as Impression
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 11 Discovery Activities
Verbal Constructions
Introduction
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases
Negation and Gerunds
Possessive Gerunds
Participial Phrases
Types of Participles
Past Participles (-ed) in Participial Phrases
Distinguishing the Different -ed Participles
Time
Passive Participial Phrases
Infinitives
Function
Infinitives as Direct Objects of Verbs
Other Patterns
Infinitives as Subjects
Infinitives After Be + Certain Adjectives
Other Structures with Infinitives
Base Verbs or ""Bare Infinitives""
Causative Verbs
Time
Basic Infinitive
Perfect Infinitive
Summary
Practice Activities
Answer Key: Chapter 12 Discovery Activities
Glossary
Appendices
Irregular English Verbs in Alphabetical List<sup>1</sup>
Some Patterns of Common Irregular Verbs
Essential Spelling Rules
Gerunds and Infinitives After Verbs
Common Adverbial Subordinator
The Eight Inflectional Morphemes of English
The Minor Categories, The Structure Words
Summary of Major Learner Difficulties
Index
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