Open-Channel Flow

ISBN-10: 0387301747

ISBN-13: 9780387301747

Edition: 2nd 2008 (Revised)

Authors: M. Hanif Chaudhry

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Description:

Analysis of open-channel flow is essential for the planning, design, and operation of water-resource projects. The use of computers and the availability of efficient computational procedures has simplified such analysis, and made it possible to handle increasingly complex systems. In Open-Channel Flow, Second Edition, author Hanif Chaudhry draws upon years of practical experience and incorporates numerous examples and real life applications, to provide the reader with: A strong emphasis on the application of efficient solution techniques, computational procedures, and numerical methods suitable for computer analyses; Complete coverage of steady and unsteady flow techniques; A new chapter on sediment transport and updated chapters on uniform flow and two dimensional flow techniques; New and updated problem sets and exercises, a solutions manual for instructors, and a CD-ROM with short computer programs in FORTRAN that include the input data for sample problems and the associated computer output. Open-Channel Flow, Second Edition is written for students in senior-level undergraduate and graduate courses on steady and unsteady open-channel flow and for civil engineers needing up-to-date and relevant information on the latest developments and techniques in the field.
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 12/4/2007
Binding: Mixed Media
Pages: 523
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.936

Preface
Basic Concepts
Introduction
Definitions
Classification of Flows
Steady and Unsteady Flows
Uniform and Nonuniform flows
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
Subcritical, Supercritical, and Critical Flows
Terminology
Velocity Distribution
Energy Coefficient
Momentum Cefficient
Example 1-1
Pressure Distribution
Static Conditions
Horizontal, Parallel Flow
Parallel Flow in Sloping Channels
Curvilinear Flow
Reynolds Transport Theorem
Computer Program
Summary
References
Conservation Laws
Introduction
Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Momentum
Equation of Motion
Steady Flow
Steady, Uniform Flow
Unsteady, Nonuniform Flow
Specific Energy
Application of Momentum and Energy Equations
Channel Transition
Example 2-1
Hydraulic Jump
Example 2-2
Hydraulic Jump at Sluice Gate Outlet
Example 2-3
Summary
References
Critical Flow
Introduction
Rectangular Channel
Specific Energy
Unit discharge
Specific force
Wave Celerity
Non-Rectangular Channel
Specific Energy
Specific Force
Application of Critical Flow
Constant-width Channel with Bottom Step
Horizontal Variable-width Channel
Example 3-1
Location of Critical Flow
Computation of Critical Depth
Design curves
Trial-and-Error Procedure
Numerical Methods
Example 3-2
Critical Depths in Compound Channels
General Remarks
Example 3-3
Algorithm for Computing the Critical Depths
Summary
References
Uniform Flow
Introduction
Flow Resistance
Flow Resistance Equations
Chezy Equation
Manning Equation
Other Resistance Equations
Computation of Normal Depth
Example 4-1
Equivalent Manning Constant
Compound Channel Cross Section
Summary
References
Gradually Varied Flow
Introduction
Governing Equation
Classification of Water-Surface Profiles
General Remarks
Sketching of Water-Surface Profiles
Example 5-1
Example 5-2
Discharge From a Reservoir
Example 5-3
Profiles in Compound Channels
Example 5-4
Example 5-5
Summary
References
Computation of Gradually Varied Flow
Introduction
General Remarks
Direct-Step Method
Example 6-1
Standard Step Method
Example 6-2
Integration of Differential Equation
Single-step Methods
Euler method
Improved Euler method
Modified Euler Method
Fourth-order Runge-Kutta Method
Predictor-Corrector Methods
Simultaneous Solution Procedure
Governing Equations
Single and Series Channels
Channel Networks
Example 6-3
Practical Applications
Computer Programs
Summary
References
Rapidly Varied Flow
Introduction
Application of Conservation Laws
Channel Transitions
General Remarks
Subcritical Flow
Supercritical Flow
Oblique Hydraulic Jump
Weirs
Sharp-Crested Weirs
Broad-Crested Weirs
Hydraulic Jump
Ratio of Sequent Depths
Length of Jump
Jump Profile
Jump types
Energy loss
Jump Location
Control of Jump
Spillways
Overflow Spillway
Energy Dissipators
Stilling Basins
Flip Buckets
Roller Buckets
Summary
References
Computation of Rapidly Varied Flow
Introduction
Governing Equations
Characteristic directions
Coordinate Transformations
Computation of Supercritical Flow
Finite-difference methods
Boundary Conditions
Verification
Computation of Sub- and Supercritical Flows
Numerical Solution
Verification
Simulation of Hydraulic Jump
Governing Equations
Numerical Solution
Computational Procedure
Results
Summary
References
Channel Design
Introduction
Rigid-Boundary Channels
Example 9-1
Most Efficient Hydraulic Section
Erodible Channels
Permissible Velocity Method
Example 9-2
Tractive Force Method
Example 9-3
Alluvial Channels
Regime Theory
Example 9-4
Summary
References
Special Topics
Introduction
Flow in a Channel Connecting Two Reservoirs
Mild bottom slope
Steep bottom slope
Air Entrainment in High-Velocity Flow
Flow Through Culverts
Flow Measurement
Velocity-area method
Slope-area method
Flumes
Summary
References
Unsteady Flow
Introduction
Definitions
Occurrence of Unsteady Flow
Height and Celerity of a Gravity Wave
Continuity equation
Momentum equation
Example 11-1
Summary
References
Governing Equations for One-Dimensional Flow
Introduction
St. Venant Equations
Continuity Equation
Momentum Equation
General Remarks
Boussinesq Equations
Continuity equation
Momentum Equation in z-direction
Momentum Equation in x-direction
Integral Forms
Summary
References
Numerical Methods
Introduction
Method of characteristics
Characteristics
Initial and Boundary Conditions
Characteristic Grid Method
Method of Specified Intervals
Other Numerical Methods
Summary
References
Finite-Difference Methods
Introduction
Terminology
Finite-difference approximations
Explicit Finite-Difference Schemes
Unstable scheme
Diffusive scheme
MacCormack Scheme
Lambda scheme
Gabutti Scheme
Implicit Finite-Difference Schemes
Preissmann Scheme
Beam and Warming scheme
VasilievVasiliev, O. F. scheme
Consistency
Stability
Example 14-1
Summary
References
Two-Dimensional Flow
Introduction
Governing Equations
Numerical Solution
MacCormack Scheme
General formulation
Boundary conditions
Gabutti Scheme
General formulation
Boundary conditions
Artificial Viscosity
Beam and Warming Schemes
General formulation
Factored schemes
Implicit split-flux factoring
Boundary conditions
Finite-Volume Scheme
Predictor part
Corrector part
Applications
Partial breach or opening of sluice gates
Propagation of a flood wave through channel contraction
Comparison with other methods
Summary
References
Sediment Transport
Introduction
Sediment property
Sediment size
Size distribution
Sand-bed and gravel-bed streams
Threshold of sediment motion
Critical Shields stress for sediment mixture
Condition for significant suspension
Shields diagram
The Exner equation of bed sediment conservation
Exner equation for multiple size fraction
Bed-load transport relations
Bed load transport relations for poorly sorted sediment
Suspended-load transport
Entrainment Relations
Resistance relations
Separation of form drag
Summary
References
Special Topics
Introduction
Rating Curve
Flood Routing
Reservoir Routing
Channel Routing
Kinematic Routing
Diffusion Routing
Muskingum-Cunge Routing
Aggradation and Degradation of Channel Bottom
Introduction
Governing equations
Numerical Scheme
Applications
Aggradation due to sediment overloading
Knickpoint migration
References
Subject Index
Author Index
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