Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves

ISBN-10: 0387005927

ISBN-13: 9780387005928

Edition: 2004

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Description:

The study of capillarity is in the midst of a veritable explosion. Hence the temptation to write a new book, aiming at an audience of students. What is offered here is not a comprehensive review of the latest research but rather a compendium of principles. How does one turn a hydrophilic surface into one that is hydrophobic, and vice versa? We will describe a few solutions. Some rely on chemical treatments, such as coating a surface with a molecular layer. Others are based on physics, for instance by controlling the roughness of a surface. We will also examine the dynamics of wetting. Drops that spread spontaneously do so at a rate that slows down with time. They can be tricked into covering large areas by spreading them suddenly. We will describe a few of the many facets of their dynamical properties. Special additives are required for water to foam. Foams are desirable in a shampoo but can be a nightmare in a dishwasher detergent. Antifoam agents have been developed and are well known, but how do they work? It is also possible to generate bubbles and foams without special additives, for example in pure and viscous liquids such as glycerin, molten glass, and polymers. As we will see, the laws of draining and bursting then turn out to be quite different from the conventional ones. This book will enable the reader to understand in simple terms such questions that affect every day life -- questions that also come up during in industry. The aim is to view systems that often prove quite complex in a way that isolates a particular physical phenomenon, often avoiding descriptions requiring advanced numerical techniques will oftentimes in favor of qualitative arguments. This strategy may attimes jeopardize scientific rigor, but it makes it possible to grasp things efficiently and to invent novel situations.
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Book details

Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 9/12/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 292
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

Preface
Introduction
References
Capillarity: Deformable Interfaces
Surface Tension
Physical Origin
Mechanical Definition: Surface Energy and Capillary Force
Measurements of Surface (or Interfacial) Tensions
Laplace Pressure
Minimal Surfaces
Jet
Drop on a Fiber
Minimal Surfaces With Zero Curvature
Contact Between Three Phases: Wetting
Two Types of Wetting: The Spreading Parameter S
Wetting Criteria: Zisman's Rule
Choice of Solid/Liquid Pairs
Ideal Liquids
Solid Substrates
Liquid Substrates: Neumann's Construction
Minimal Surfaces - Euler-Lagrange Equations
References
Capillarity and Gravity
The Capillary Length [kappa superscript -1]
Drops and Puddles in the Partial Wetting Regime
The Shape of Drops
Droplets (R << [kappa superscript -1])
Heavy Drops (R >> [kappa superscript -1])
Experimental Techniques for Characterizing Drops
Menisci
Characteristic Size
Shape of a Meniscus Facing a Vertical Plate
Meniscus on a Vertical Fiber
Capillary Rise in Tubes: Jurin's Law
Historical Background
The Law of Capillary Rise
Pressure Argument for the Capillary Rise
Floating Lenses
The Spreading Parameter
The Shape of Floating Lenses (S < 0)
Supplement on Techniques for Measuring Surface Tensions
The Shape of Drops
The Pendant Drop Method
Spinning Drops
Pressure Measurements
Force Measurements
Soft Solid Interfaces
References
Hysteresis and Elasticity of Triple Lines
Description of Phenomena
Advancing and Receding Angle
Pinning of the Triple Line
Elasticity of the Triple Line
The Myth of the Line Tension
The Fringe Elasticity of the Line of Contact
Hysteresis Due to Strong, Sparse Defects
Surfaces With Dense Defects
A Realistic Example
Small, Uncorrelated Defects
Two Cases Consistent With the Elasticity of Vibrating Strings
Hele-Shaw Cells
Puddle Edges
Puddle Distortions
The Role of Thermal Fluctuations
References
Wetting and Long-Range Forces
Energy and Properties of Films
Transition From Macroscopic to Microscopic
Thickness Change and Disjoining Pressure
Overall Stress in a Film
Three Types of Wetting
Stability Condition
Total Wetting
Partial Wetting
Pseudo-Partial Wetting
The Nature of Long-Range Forces
van der Waals Forces
Case of Temperature-Dependent van der Waals Forces
Van der Waals Interactions in Layered Solids: Surface Treatments
Other Long-Range Forces
Some Manifestations of Long-Range Forces
Films on Slightly Rough Substrates: The Healing Length
Fine Structure of the Triple Line
Stratified Film
References
Hydrodynamics of Interfaces
Mechanics of Films: The Lubrication Approximation
Dynamics of Thin Films
Thinning of a Vertical Film
Levelling of a Horizontal Film
Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Plateau-Rayleigh Instability
Forced Wetting
The Landau-Levich-Derjaguin Model (and Variant Thereof)
Soapy Liquids
Other Geometries
Dynamics of Impregnation
Description of the Phenomenon
Washburn's Law
Inertial Regime
Waves and Ripples
Deep Water Condition
Dispersion Relation in the Intertial Regime
Attenuation
References
Dynamics of the Triple Line
Basic Experiment
Relation Between Force and Velocity
Mechanical Model (Viscous Dissipation)
Chemical Model
Oscillations Modes of a Triple Line
Dynamics of Total Wetting
References
Dewetting
Critical Thickness for Dewetting
Film on a Solid Substrate
Film on a Liquid Substrate
Sandwiched Liquid Films
Viscous Dewetting
Ideal Solid Substrates
Imperfect Solid Substrates
Surfaces With Hysteresis
"Slippery" Substrates
Liquid Substrates
Spinodal Dewetting
Inertial Dewetting
The Reynolds Number
The Froude Number (Condition for Shock Waves)
Liquid/Liquid Inertial Dewetting
Visco-Elastic Dewetting
Rupture of Ultra-Viscous Films
Life and Death of Viscous Bubbles
References
Surfactants
Frustrated Pairs
Principle
The Notion of Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Balance (HLB)
Aggregation of Surfactants
Aggregation in Volume: Micelles
Water/Air Interfaces
Insoluble Monolayers
Soluble Monolayers
Dynamical Surface Tensions
Some Applications of Surfactants
Flotation
Detergents
Emulsification
Surfactants as Wetting and Dewetting Agents
Soap Films and Bubbles
Fabrication of Films
The Role of Surfactants
Draining Mechanisms
Aging and Death of Films
The Case of Bubbles
References
Special Interfaces
Outline
Wetting of Textured Surfaces
Basic Model
Experiment of Johnson and Dettre
Wenzel's Model
The Cassie-Baxter Model
Composite Rough Surfaces
Hydrophilic Surfaces
Hydrophobic Surfaces
Summary
Liquid Pearls and Marbles
Implementation
Static States
Dynamical States
Wetting and Porous Media
Capillary Rise in a Porous Medium
Equilibrium Angle at the Surface of a Porous Medium
Suction Experiments on Drops
Suction Experiments on Films
Wetting at Soft Interfaces
Principles of "Elastic" Wetting
The Spreading Parameter S
Young's Relation No Longer Holds!
Penny-Shaped Trapped Drops
Experimental Observation of Elastic Wetting
The Three Partners: Soft Solid, Liquid, and Elastomer
Observation of the Contact: Reflection Interference Contrast Microscopy
Drop Profile and Measurement of S
"Elastic" Dewetting of Wedged-in Films
Drainage
Controlled Dewetting: Nucleators
Wetting Transitions Under Shear: The Principle of Hydroplaning
Role of Nucleators in Forced Wetting: Cerenkov Wake
Conclusion
References
Transport Phenomena
Chemical Gradients
Experiments With Vapors
Transport Toward Wettable Regions
Thermal Gradients
Drops Favoring the Cold
Finger Formation
Reactive Wetting
Examples
Liquid Column in a Capillary
Bidrops
"Running Drops" on a Solid Planar Surface
Transport by Electric Field
Relevance of Microsystems
Electrocapillarity
Principle of Electro-Osmosis
Examples
Electrostatic Lenses
Transfer of Bubbles
Limitations
Comparison with Capacitive Effects
References
Index
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