ISBN-10: 037570406X

ISBN-13: 9780375704062

Edition: 1999

Authors: Oliver Sacks

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"Balanced, authoritative . . . brilliant."  --The London Times "Written by one of the great clinical writers of the twentieth century, Migraine . . . should be read as much for its brilliant insights into the nature of our mental functioning as for its discussion of the migraine."  --The New York Times Book Review The many manifestations of migraine can vary dramatically from one patient to another, even within the same patient at different times. Among the most compelling and perplexing of these symptoms are the strange visual hallucinations and distortions of space, time, and body image which migraineurs sometimes experience. Portrayals of these uncanny states have found their way into many works of art, from the heavenly visions of Hildegard von Bingen to Alice in Wonderland. Dr. Oliver Sacks argues that migraine cannot be understood simply as an illness, but must be viewed as a complex condition with a unique role to play in each individual's life. "I am sure . . . that any layman who is interested in the relation between the body and mind . . . will find the book as fascinating as I have."  --W. H. Auden, The New York Review of Books
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Book details

List price: $15.95
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
Publication date: 10/5/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 368
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.792
Language: English

Oliver Wolf Sacks is a neurologist and writer. He was born in London, England on July 9, 1933. Sacks earned his medical degree at Oxford University and performed his internship at Middlesex Hospital in London and Mount Zion Hospital in San Francisco. He completed his residency at UCLA. In 1965, Sacks became a clinical neurologist to the Little Sisters of the Poor and Beth Abraham Hospital. He also worked with the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Sacks' work in a Bronx charity hospital led him to write the book Awakenings in 1973. The book inspired a play by Harold Pinter and became a film starring Robert De Niro and Robin Williams. Sacks was also elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. He also wrote Mind's Eye which made The NewYork Times Bestseller list for 2010.

List of Illustrations
Preface to the Revised (1992) Edition
Preface to the Original (1970) Edition
Historical Introduction
The Experience of Migraine
Common Migraine
Introductory Comments
Nausea and Associated Symptoms
Facial Appearance
Ocular Symptoms
Nasal Symptoms
Abdominal Symptoms and Abnormal Bowel-Action
Lethargy and Drowsiness
Dizziness, Vertigo, Faintness and Syncope
Alterations of Fluid Balance
Minor Symptoms and Signs: Pupillary Abnormalities, Horner's Syndrome, Bradycardia, Multiple Ecchymoses, Whitening of Hair, etc.
Organic Irritability and Photophobia
Symptom-Constellations in Common Migraine
The Sequence of a Common Migraine: Prodromal Symptoms, Modes of Resolution, Post-Migrainous Rebound
Concluding Comments
Postscript (1992)
Migraine Equivalents
Introductory Comments
Cyclic Vomiting and Bilious Attacks
Abdominal Migraine
Periodic Diarrhoea
Periodic Fever
Precordial Migraine
Periodic Sleep and Trance-States
Periodic Mood-Changes
Menstrual Syndromes
Alternations and Transformations of Migraine
Borderlands of Migraine: Vagal Attacks, Faints, Reactions to Heat, Exhaustion, Passive Motion, Alcohol, etc.
Alternations and Concomitances with other Disorders: Asthma, Angina, Laryngospasm, Sleep-Disorders, Peptic Ulcer, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn's Disease, Psoriasis, etc.
Differential Diagnosis of Migraine Equivalents
Concluding Comments
Migraine Aura and Classical Migraine
Introductory Comments: Historical Descriptions of Migraine Aura
Specific Visual Hallucinations: Phosphenes and Elementary Hallucinations, Varieties of Migraine Spectra, Characteristics of Scintillating and Negative Scotomata
Specific Tactile Hallucinations: Paraesthesiae, Anaesthesia
Other Sensory Hallucinations: Auditory, Olfactory, Taste, Epigastric, Motor, Vertiginous, etc.
Pseudo-objectivity of Migraine Hallucinations
General Alterations of Sensory Threshold
Alterations of Consciousness and Postural Tone
Specific Motor Disorders: Weakness, Paralyses, Spasms, Seizures
Alterations of Affect and Mood
Disorders of Higher Integrative Functions: Complex Visual Distortions (Micropsia and Macropsia, Mosaic and Cinematographic Vision, Metamorphopsias, Visual Agnosias, etc.)
Complex Apraxias, Agnosias, and Distortions of Body-Image
Time-Distortions, Deja Vu, and Forced Reminiscence
Dreamy States
Migrainous Deliria and Psychoses
Illustrative Case-Histories
Comments on the General Structure of Migraine Aura: Its Differential Diagnosis and Distinction from Epilepsies
Classical Migraine
Postscript (1992): The Angst of Scotoma
Migrainous Neuralgia ("Cluster Headache")--Hemiplegic Migraine--Ophthalmoplegic Migraine--Pseudo-Migraine
Migrainous Neuralgia: Synonyms, Typical Features, Illustrative Case-Histories
Hemiplegic and Facioplegic Migraine: Typical Features, Possible Mechanisms of Attack, Case-Histories
Ophthalmoplegic Migraine
Pseudo-Migraine: Organic Lesions Simulating Migraine
Permanent Neurological or Vascular Damage from Migraine
The Structure of Migraine
Introductory Comments, Components and Functional Levels of Migraine, Psychophysiological Stages of Migraine, General Characteristics of Migraine: Relation to Sleep, Epilepsy, etc.
The Occurrence of Migraine
The Predisposition to Migraine
Introductory Comments
Overall Incidence of Migraine
Familial Occurrence and Inheritance of Migraine
Signs of Migrainous Constitution
Migraine Diathesis in Relation to Other Disorders
Migraine in Relation to Age
General Discussion and Conclusions
Periodic and Paroxysmal Migraines
Migraine and Other Biological Cycles
Time Between Attacks: Relation Between Frequency and Severity of Attacks
Immunity Between Attacks
Signs of Approaching Attacks
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Determinants of Periodicity
Conclusions: The Notion of Idiopathy
Postscript (1992)
Circumstantial Migraine
Classification of Provocative Circumstances
Arousal Migraines: In Response to Light, Noise, Odours, Weather, Exercise, Excitement, Violent Emotions, Pain, Drugs, etc.
Slump Migraines: In Relation to Eating, Fasting, Heat, Fever, Passive Motion, Exhaustion, Drugs (Alcohol, Reserpine, etc.)
Nocturnal Migraines, and Relation of Attacks to Dreams and Nightmares
Migraine Aura in Response to Flickering Light, Patterned Stimuli, and Visualisation of Scotomata
Miscellaneous Determinants: Food, Constipation, Menstrual Cycles, Hormones, Allergies, etc.
Self-Perpetuation of Migraines
Provocation of Attacks in Relation to "Tuning" and Homeostatic Limits Within Nervous System
Situational Migraine
Migraine in Relation to Intolerable Emotional Stress
Preliminary Comments on "Migraine Personality" and Relation of Attacks to Repressed Hostility
Case-Histories Illustrating Wide Range of Situations and Character-Types in which Repeated Migraines May Occur
The Basis of Migraine
Clarification of the Term "Cause" in Relation to Migraine
Necessity to View Migraine in Three Ways: as a Process in the Nervous System, as a Reaction to Certain Stimuli, and as a Particular Form of Experience
Physiological Mechanisms of Migraine
Historical Introduction: Classical Theories (Humoral and Sympathetic), Vascular and Vasomotor Theories of the Nineteenth Century
Critiques of These
Liveing's Theory of "Nerve Storms"
Current theories of Migraine Mechanisms and their Supporting Data
Vasomotor Theories (Latham-Wolff) Considered and Disputed
Chemical Theories of Migraine, with Particular Reference to Acetylcholine, Histamine, and Serotonin: Critique of These
Electroencephalographic Findings in Migraine: Notion of "Dysrhythmic Migraine," and of "Spreading Depression" in Relation to Migraine
Limitations of Current Theory and Data
The Physiological Organisation of Migraines
Introductory Comments
Migraines as Polymorphous Parasympathetic or Trophotropic Events
Migraine as a Slow Form of Centrencephalic Seizure
Consideration of Visual Hallucinations in Migraine and Their Cortical Basis
Hierarchical Organisation of Migraines, and Their Relationship to other Paroxysmal Events
Migraine Considered as a "Neural Task," with Fixed Ends and Variable Means
Biological Approaches to Migraine
Migraine Considered as a Special Form of Protective Behaviour
Its Affinities to other Passive Reactions to Threat (Passive Fear, "Freezing," Sham Death, Pathological Sleep, Fainting, etc.)
Contrast of These Reactions to Fight-Flight Responses
Concept of the Migraine Archetype, and its Differentiation in Response to Human Needs and Human Nervous Systems
Psychological Approaches to Migraine
Necessity of Considering Migraines as Experiences to which Emotional Values are Attached. Common Uses of Migraines: Recuperative, Regressive, Encapsulative, Dissociative, Aggressive, and Self-Punitive Attacks
Mechanisms of Psychosomatic Illness in Reference to Migraine
Migraine Considered as a "Vegetative Neurosis" and as a Special Form of Conversion Reaction
Attachment of Symbolic Value to Particular Symptoms of Migraine
Migraine Considered as an Archaic Form of Bodily Language
Therapeutic Approaches to Migraine
General Measures in the Management of Migraine
Introductory Comments: Approach to the Patient and Role of the Physician
General Health Measures and Avoidance of Provocative Circumstances
Forms and Uses of Psychotherapy
Definition of Therapeutic Goals
Reasons for Success and Failure in the Treatment of Migraine
Specific Measures During and Between Attacks
Introductory and Historical Comments
Drugs of Specific Use During Acute Attacks: Ergotamine, its Uses and Contraindications, Caffeine, Parasympathetic Blockers (Belladonna, etc.), Sympathomimetic Drugs (Amphetamines, etc.)
Symptomatic Drugs: Analgesics, Anti-Emetics, etc.
Miscellaneous Drugs: Legitimate and Otherwise General Measures in the Acute Attack
Management of "Status Migrainosus"
Drugs Employed in the Prevention of Migraine Attacks: Methysergide (Sansert, Deseril), its Uses and Dangers
Use of Ergotamine Prophylactically
The Role of Sedatives, Tranquillisers, Anti-Depressants, etc.
Other Forms of Medication
The Uses of Placebos
Histamine "Desensitisation"
Allergic "Desensitisation"
Hormone Preparations, Their Abuses and Dangers
The Place of Surgical Procedures
Recent Advances in the Treatment of Migraine
Migraine as a Universal
Migraine Aura and Hallucinatory Constants (with Ralph M. Siegel, PH.D.)
Types or Levels of Hallucination
Hallucinatory Constants
Mechanisms of Hallucination
Self-Organising Systems
A New Model of Migraine Aura
The Visions of Hildegard
Cardan's Visions (1570)
Remedies Advised by Willis (1672), Heberden (1801) and Gowers (1892)
Glossary of Case-Histories
Glossary of Terms
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