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Understanding Food Principles and Preparation

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ISBN-10: 0314204091

ISBN-13: 9780314204097

Edition: Revised 

Authors: Amy Brown

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Book details

List price: $98.95
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 12/3/1999
Binding: Digital, Other 
Pages: 700
Size: 8.66" wide x 11.42" long
Weight: 3.586
Language: English

Prefacep. xix
Food Science and Nutrition
Food Selection and Evaluationp. 3
Food Selection Criteriap. 4
Sensory Criteriap. 4
Nutritional Criteriap. 7
Cultural Criteriap. 9
Religious Criteriap. 10
Psychological and Sociological Criteriap. 11
Budgetary Criteriap. 13
Food Evaluationp. 13
Subjective Evaluationp. 13
Objective Evaluationp. 14
Pictorial Summaryp. 17
Referencesp. 18
Chemistry of Food Compositionp. 21
Basic Food Chemistryp. 22
Waterp. 23
Water Content in Foodsp. 23
Composition of Waterp. 23
Functions of Water in Foodp. 25
Carbohydratesp. 28
Foods High in Carbohydratesp. 28
Composition of Carbohydratesp. 29
Lipids or Fatsp. 34
Foods High in Lipidsp. 34
Composition of Lipidsp. 34
Proteinsp. 38
Foods High in Proteinsp. 38
Composition of Proteinsp. 39
Functions of Proteins in Foodp. 39
Vitamins and Mineralsp. 43
Foods High in Vitamins and Mineralsp. 43
Composition of Vitamins and Mineralsp. 44
Functions of Vitamins and Minerals in Foodp. 44
Non-Nutritive Food Componentsp. 45
Color Compoundsp. 45
Flavor Compundsp. 45
Plant Compoundsp. 45
Pictorial Summaryp. 47
Referencesp. 48
Food Service
Meal Management, Planning, and Servicep. 53
Meal Planningp. 54
Menusp. 54
Nutrient Valuep. 56
Amount to Purchasep. 57
Budgetingp. 57
Food Stores and Vendors/Suppliersp. 57
Economical Food Purchasingp. 59
Portion Controlp. 61
Time Managementp. 61
Estimating Timep. 62
Efficient Meal Preparationp. 62
Food Service Organizationp. 64
Hospital Food Servicep. 64
Table Settingsp. 65
Cover and Linensp. 65
Flatware/Dinnerware/Glasswarep. 66
Accessoriesp. 66
Table Mannersp. 67
Basic Dining Etiquettep. 67
Flatware/Glassware Etiquettep. 67
Types of Meal Servicep. 68
Russian Servicep. 68
French Servicep. 69
English Servicep. 69
American Servicep. 69
Family Servicep. 69
Buffet Servicep. 69
Pictorial Summaryp. 70
Referencesp. 71
Heating and Equipmentp. 73
Heating Foodsp. 74
Measuring Heatp. 74
Types of Heat Transferp. 75
Food Preparation Equipmentp. 76
Primary Equipmentp. 76
Auxiliary Equipmentp. 81
Pots and Pansp. 84
Utensilsp. 86
Pictorial Summaryp. 93
Referencesp. 94
Food Preparation Basicsp. 95
Methods of Heating Foodsp. 96
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 96
Dry-Heat Preparationp. 97
Cutlery Techniquesp. 99
Handling Knivesp. 99
Cutting Stylesp. 99
Measuring Ingredientsp. 100
Liquidp. 101
Eggsp. 101
Fatp. 101
Sugarp. 103
Flourp. 103
Other Ingredients and Substitutionsp. 104
Mixing Techniquesp. 104
Conventional (Creaming) Methodp. 104
Conventional Sponge Methodp. 105
Single-Stage Methodp. 105
Pastry-Blend Methodp. 105
Biscuit Methodp. 105
Muffin Methodp. 105
Seasonings and Flavoringsp. 105
Types of Seasonings and Flavoringsp. 105
Nutrient Content: Saltp. 107
Adding Seasonings and Flavorings to Foodp. 108
Food Presentationp. 109
Plate Presentationp. 109
Garnishesp. 109
Pictorial Summaryp. 110
Referencesp. 111
Food Safetyp. 113
Foodborne Illnessp. 114
Types of Foodborne Illnessp. 114
Symptoms of Foodborne Illnessp. 114
The HACCP Systemp. 114
Assess the Hazardsp. 115
Determine Critical Control Pointsp. 115
Establish Standards at Each Critical Control Pointp. 115
Monitor Critical Control Pointsp. 115
Take Corrective Actionp. 115
Document Critical Control Points Not Under Controlp. 116
Verification of the HACCP Systemp. 116
Hazards to Food Safetyp. 116
Bacteriap. 116
Moldsp. 123
Virusesp. 123
Animal Parasitesp. 124
Natural Toxicantsp. 126
Chemical and Physical Hazardsp. 127
Critical Control Pointsp. 128
Processingp. 128
Purchasingp. 128
Preparationp. 129
Sanitationp. 130
Storagep. 132
Monitoring Food Safetyp. 133
In-House Inspectionp. 133
Health Department Inspectionp. 133
National Surveillancep. 133
Pictorial Summaryp. 136
Referencesp. 137
Food Preservationp. 141
Food Spoilagep. 142
Biological Changesp. 142
Chemical Changesp. 142
Physical Changesp. 143
Food Preservation Methodsp. 143
Dryingp. 143
Curingp. 144
Fermentationp. 144
Picklingp. 145
Edible Coatingsp. 145
Canningp. 145
Cold Preservationp. 146
Refrigerationp. 146
Freezingp. 147
Heating Methodsp. 148
Boilingp. 148
Pasteurizationp. 148
Ohmic Heatingp. 148
Other Preservation Methodsp. 148
Irradiationp. 148
Pascalizationp. 149
Aseptic and Modified-Atmosphere Packagingp. 150
Ozonationp. 150
Pictorial Summaryp. 152
Referencesp. 153
Government Regulation of Foodp. 155
Food and Drug Administrationp. 156
FDA Inspectionsp. 157
Standardsp. 157
Food Labelingp. 158
Nutrition Factsp. 159
Food Additivesp. 160
Research/Educationp. 163
U.S. Department of Agriculturep. 163
USDA Inspectionsp. 163
Gradingp. 164
Environmental Protection Agencyp. 165
Centers for Disease Control and Preventionp. 165
Other Regulatory Agenciesp. 165
U.S. Department of Commercep. 165
Federal Trade Commissionp. 165
Department of the Treasuryp. 166
State Agenciesp. 166
Pictorial Summaryp. 167
Referencesp. 168
Food Items
Sweetenersp. 173
Types of Sweetenersp. 174
Sugarsp. 174
Nutrient Content: Sugarsp. 176
Syrupsp. 177
Sugar Alcoholsp. 179
Alternative Sweetenersp. 180
Functions of Sugars in Foodsp. 182
Sweetnessp. 182
Solubilityp. 182
Crystallizationp. 182
Browning Reactionsp. 183
Moisture Absorption (Hygroscopicity)p. 183
Fermentationp. 183
Preservationp. 183
Pictorial Summaryp. 184
Referencesp. 185
Fats and Oilsp. 187
Functions of Fats in Foodp. 188
Heat Transferp. 188
Shortening Powerp. 189
Emulsionsp. 189
Melting Pointp. 190
Plasticityp. 191
Nutrient Content: Fatp. 191
Solubilityp. 192
Flavor/Satietyp. 192
Other Nutrientsp. 192
Types of Fatsp. 192
Butterp. 192
Margarinep. 193
Shorteningsp. 193
Oilsp. 194
Lard/Tallowp. 195
Cocoa Butterp. 195
Fat Replacersp. 196
Food Preparation with Fatsp. 197
Deep-Fat Frying Carep. 197
Lower-Fat Preparation Techniquesp. 199
Storage of Fatsp. 200
Rancidityp. 200
Pictorial Summaryp. 204
Referencesp. 205
Milkp. 208
Composition of Milkp. 208
Nutrientsp. 208
Color Compoundsp. 210
Purchasing Milkp. 210
Gradesp. 210
Pasteurizationp. 210
Homogenizationp. 211
Types of Milkp. 211
Fluid Milksp. 212
Canned Milkp. 214
Dry Milkp. 215
Cultured Milk Productsp. 215
Creams and Substitutesp. 216
Milk Products in Food Preparationp. 217
Flavor Changesp. 217
Coagulation and Precipitationp. 217
Whipped Milk Productsp. 218
Storage of Milk Productsp. 219
Refrigeratedp. 219
Dry Storagep. 220
Pictorial Summaryp. 221
Referencesp. 222
Cheesep. 223
Classification of Cheesesp. 225
Cheese Productionp. 225
Milk Selectionp. 225
Coagulationp. 225
Nutrient Content: Cheesep. 226
Curd Treatmentp. 227
Curing and Ripeningp. 227
Whey and Whey Productsp. 228
Processed Cheesesp. 229
Tofup. 230
Purchasing Cheesep. 230
Gradingp. 230
Food Preparation with Cheesep. 231
Selecting Cheesep. 231
Temperaturesp. 232
Storage of Cheesep. 232
Dry Storagep. 232
Refrigerationp. 232
Frozenp. 233
Pictorial Summaryp. 234
Referencesp. 235
Eggsp. 237
Composition of Eggsp. 238
Structurep. 238
Nutrient Content: Eggsp. 239
Purchasing Eggsp. 240
Inspectionp. 240
Gradingp. 240
Sizingp. 241
Egg Substitutesp. 241
Preparation of Eggsp. 241
Functions of Eggs in Foodp. 242
Changes in Prepared Eggsp. 245
Dry-Heat Preparationp. 245
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 248
Storage of Eggsp. 250
Refrigeratorp. 250
Frozenp. 251
Driedp. 251
Safety Tipsp. 251
Pictorial Summaryp. 253
Referencesp. 254
Meatp. 255
Types of Meatsp. 256
Beefp. 256
Lamb and Muttonp. 256
Porkp. 257
Composition of Meatsp. 257
Structure of Meatp. 257
Pigmentsp. 259
Nutrient Content: Meatp. 260
Extractivesp. 261
Purchasing Meatsp. 261
Inspectionp. 261
Qualityp. 262
Tenderness of Meatsp. 264
Cuts of Meatp. 266
Processed Meatsp. 268
Preparation of Meatsp. 273
Changes During Heatingp. 273
Determining Donenessp. 274
Dry-Heat Preparationp. 275
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 278
Carvingp. 279
Storage of Meatsp. 279
Refrigeratedp. 279
Frozenp. 279
Pictorial Summaryp. 281
Referencesp. 282
Poultryp. 285
Classification of Poultryp. 286
Chickensp. 286
Turkeysp. 286
Nutrient Content: Poultryp. 287
Other Domestic Poultryp. 287
Composition of Poultryp. 288
Pigmentsp. 288
Purchasing Poultryp. 288
Inspectionp. 288
Gradesp. 288
Types and Styles of Poultryp. 288
How Much to Buyp. 288
Preparation of Poultryp. 290
General Preparationp. 290
Changes During Preparationp. 290
Determining Donenessp. 290
Dry-Heat Preparationp. 292
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 296
Storage of Poultryp. 296
Pictorial Summaryp. 297
Referencesp. 298
Fish and Shellfishp. 299
Classification of Fish and Shellfishp. 300
Vertebrate or Invertebratep. 300
Salt or Fresh Waterp. 300
Lean or Fatp. 301
Composition of Fishp. 301
Structure of Finfishp. 301
Pigmentsp. 302
Nutrient Content: Finfishp. 302
Purchasing Fish and Shellfishp. 303
Inspection/Gradingp. 303
Selection of Finfishp. 303
Selection of Shellfishp. 308
Preparation of Fish and Shellfishp. 311
Dry-Heat Preparationp. 311
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 312
Storage of Fish and Shellfishp. 313
Freshp. 314
Frozenp. 314
Canned and Curedp. 315
Pictorial Summaryp. 316
Referencesp. 317
Vegetablesp. 319
Classification of Vegetablesp. 320
Composition of Vegetablesp. 320
Structurep. 320
Pigmentsp. 321
Nutrient Content: Vegetablesp. 323
Purchasing Vegetablesp. 325
Grading Vegetablesp. 325
Choosing Vegetablesp. 325
Preparation of Vegetablesp. 332
General Guidelinesp. 332
Changes During Heatingp. 332
Dry-Heat Preparationp. 335
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 335
Preparing Legumesp. 335
Preparing Sproutsp. 336
Storage of Vegetablesp. 337
Refrigeratedp. 337
Dryp. 338
Controlled-Atmosphere Storagep. 338
Pictorial Summaryp. 339
Referencesp. 340
Fruitsp. 343
Classification of Fruitsp. 344
Classification Exceptionsp. 344
Composition of Fruitsp. 344
Organic Acidsp. 344
Pectic Substancesp. 344
Phenolic Compoundsp. 345
Nutrient Content: Fruitsp. 346
Purchasing Fruitsp. 346
Grading Fruitp. 346
Choosing Fruitsp. 346
Processed Fruitsp. 354
Dried Fruitsp. 354
Fruit Juicesp. 355
Preparation of Fruitsp. 355
Enzymatic Browningp. 355
Changes During Heatingp. 355
Dry-Heat Preparationp. 357
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 357
Fruit Spreadsp. 357
Storage of Fruitsp. 359
Pictorial Summaryp. 361
Referencesp. 362
Soups and Saladsp. 365
Soupsp. 366
Stocksp. 366
Clear and Thin Soupsp. 368
Thick Soupsp. 368
Cream Soupsp. 368
Saladsp. 369
Salad Ingredientsp. 370
Leafy Green Saladsp. 371
Vegetable Saladsp. 372
Fruit Saladsp. 372
Protein Saladsp. 373
Pasta/Grain Saladsp. 374
Salad Dressingsp. 374
Gelatin Saladsp. 375
Pictorial Summaryp. 378
Referencesp. 379
Starches and Saucesp. 381
Starches as Thickenersp. 382
Sources of Starchp. 382
Food Productsp. 382
Starch Structurep. 383
Starch Characteristicsp. 383
Gelatinizationp. 383
Gel Formationp. 385
Retrogradationp. 386
Dextrinizationp. 386
Modified Starchesp. 386
Saucesp. 387
Thickened Saucesp. 388
Unthickened Saucesp. 391
Storage of Starches and Thickened Saucesp. 392
Pictorial Summaryp. 393
Referencesp. 394
Cereal Grains and Pastasp. 395
Composition of Cereal Grainsp. 396
Structurep. 396
Nutrient Content: Cereal Grainsp. 397
Uses of Cereal Grainsp. 398
Flourp. 398
Pastap. 398
Breakfast Cerealp. 398
Alcoholic Beveragesp. 399
Animal Feedsp. 399
Types of Cereal Grainsp. 399
Wheatp. 399
Ricep. 399
Cornp. 401
Barleyp. 402
Milletp. 402
Sorghump. 402
Oatsp. 402
Ryep. 403
Other Grainsp. 404
Preparation of Cereal Grainsp. 404
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 404
Storage of Cereal Grainsp. 406
Dryp. 406
Refrigeratedp. 406
Frozenp. 406
Pastasp. 406
Types of Pastap. 406
Pasta Nomenclaturep. 408
Nutrient Content: Pastap. 408
Preparation of Pastap. 408
Moist-Heat Preparationp. 408
Storage of Pastap. 409
Pictorial Summaryp. 410
Referencesp. 411
Flours and Flour Mixturesp. 413
Flour Mixture Ingredients and Their Functionsp. 414
Floursp. 414
Leavening Agentsp. 419
Sugarp. 423
Salt/Flavoringp. 424
Liquidp. 424
Milkp. 425
Fatp. 425
Eggsp. 426
Commercial Additivesp. 426
Preparation of Baked Goodsp. 427
Doughs and Battersp. 427
Changes During Heatingp. 428
Storage of Flour and Flour Mixturesp. 428
Pictorial Summaryp. 429
Referencesp. 430
Quick Breadsp. 433
Preparation of Quick Breadsp. 434
The Muffin Methodp. 434
Varieties of Quick Breadsp. 434
Pour Battersp. 434
Nutrient Content: Quick Breadsp. 435
Drop Battersp. 436
Doughsp. 437
Pictorial Summaryp. 440
Referencesp. 441
Reast Breasp. 443
Preparation of Yeast Breadsp. 444
Ingredientsp. 444
Mixing Methodsp. 444
Nutrient Content: Breadsp. 445
Kneadingp. 445
Fermentation--First Risingp. 446
Punching Down--Second Risingp. 447
Shapingp. 447
Proofingp. 447
Decoratingp. 448
Bakingp. 449
Varietres of Yeast Breadsp. 450
Loaf Breadsp. 450
Rollsp. 451
Pita Breadp. 451
Bagelsp. 451
English Muffinsp. 451
Pizza Crustp. 452
Raised Doughnutsp. 452
Specialty Breadsp. 452
Storage of Yeast Breadsp. 453
Freshp. 453
Refrigeratedp. 454
Frozenp. 454
Pictorial Summaryp. 455
Referencesp. 456
Desserts and Beverages
Cakes and Cookiesp. 459
Types of Cakesp. 460
Shortened Cakesp. 460
Unshortened Cakesp. 460
Chiffon Cakesp. 460
Preparation of Cakesp. 460
Ingredientsp. 460
Nutrient Content: Cakesp. 461
Shortened Cakesp. 462
Unshortened Cakesp. 464
Storage of Cakesp. 465
Types of Cookiesp. 465
Nutrient Content: Cookiesp. 466
Bar Cookiesp. 466
Dropped Cookiesp. 466
Pressed Cookiesp. 466
Molded Cookiesp. 466
Rolled Cookiesp. 466
Icebox/Refrigerator Cookiesp. 467
Preparation of Cookiesp. 467
Mixing Methodsp. 467
Baking Cookiesp. 467
Storage of Cookiesp. 468
Pictorial Summaryp. 469
Referencesp. 470
Pies and Pastriesp. 471
Types of Pastriesp. 472
Preparation of Pastryp. 472
Ingredients of Pastryp. 473
Mixingp. 476
Rollingp. 477
Fillingsp. 481
Bakingp. 482
Storage of Pastryp. 484
Pictorial Summaryp. 485
Referencesp. 486
Candyp. 487
Classification of Candiesp. 488
Preparation of Candyp. 488
Crystalline Candiesp. 489
Nutrient Content: Sweeteners in Candiesp. 490
Noncrystalline Candiesp. 493
Chocolatep. 494
Frostingsp. 498
Storage of Candyp. 499
Pictorial Summaryp. 500
Referencesp. 501
Frozen Dessertsp. 503
Types of Frozen Dessertsp. 504
Ice Creamp. 504
Imitation Ice Creamp. 505
Frozen Yogurtp. 505
Sherbetp. 505
Sorbetp. 506
Water Icesp. 506
Still-Frozen Dessertsp. 506
Nutrient Content: Fat and Sugar in Frozen Dessertsp. 506
Preparation of Frozen Dessertsp. 506
Factors Affecting Qualityp. 506
Mixing and Freezingp. 508
Storage of Frozen Dessertsp. 510
Pictorial Summaryp. 511
Referencesp. 512
Beveragesp. 513
Waterp. 514
Types of Waterp. 514
Carbonated Beveragesp. 515
Fruit and Vegetable Beveragesp. 515
Fruit/Vegetable Juice Processingp. 515
New Age Beveragesp. 517
Types of New Age Beveragesp. 517
Aromatic Beveragesp. 517
Coffeep. 517
Teap. 521
Dairy Beveragesp. 524
Alcoholic Beveragesp. 524
Beerp. 525
Winep. 525
Spiritsp. 529
Pictorial Summaryp. 531
Referencesp. 532
Appendixesp. 535
Canadian Dietary Recommendationsp. 537
Approximate Food Measurementsp. 539
Substitution of Ingredientsp. 541
Flavorings and Seasoningsp. 543
Garnishesp. 547
Additivesp. 549
Cheesesp. 553
Seasons for Vegetablesp. 555
Seasons for Fruitsp. 557
Standard Can Sizesp. 559
Chemistry of Foodp. 561
Chapter Review Questionsp. 565
Glossaryp. 585
Credits and Sourcesp. 593
Indexp. 595
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