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Juvenile Justice

ISBN-10: 031404454X

ISBN-13: 9780314044549

Edition: 2nd 1995

Authors: Robert W. Drowns, Karen M. Hess

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Description:

This text discusses how the juvenile justice system fits in with the larger criminal justice system. It covers the components of the entire juvenile justice system, including law enforcement, youth, the courts, and corrections. Authors discuss the complex issues facing the juvenile justice system.
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Book details

List price: $47.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 1995
Publisher: West Publishing Company, College & School Division
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 664
Language: English

K�ren Matison Hess, PhD., (d. 2010) wrote extensively in law enforcement and criminal justice, gaining a respected reputation for the consistent pedagogical style around which she structured each textbook. She developed the original edition of MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISION IN LAW ENFORCEMENT with Wayne Bennett and carried it through four very successful revisions; much of her work and influence remains unchanged in this new edition.

Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
The Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System
The Historical and Philosophical Roots of the Juvenile Justice Systemp. 1
Social Control in Early Societiesp. 2
Developments in Englandp. 4
The Middle Ages (A.D. 500-1500)p. 4
The Feudal Periodp. 5
The Renaissancep. 5
The Reform Movementp. 6
The Early Development of U.S. Juvenile Justicep. 7
From the Colonial Period to the Industrial Revolutionp. 7
Highlights of Colonial Period and Industrial Revolution Reformp. 8
Developments in the Early Nineteenth Centuryp. 8
The Child Saversp. 11
Highlights of Early 1800s Reformp. 12
Developments in The Late Nineteenth Centuryp. 13
The Juvenile Court Movementp. 13
Highlights of Late Nineteenth Century Reformp. 16
Into the Twentieth Century: The Progressive Erap. 16
The First Juvenile Courtsp. 17
Federal Government Concern and Involvementp. 18
Early Efforts at Diversion: The Chicago Boy's Courtp. 19
Highlights of Progressive Era Reformp. 19
The New Deal Erap. 19
The Youth Counsel Bureaup. 21
Highlights of New Deal Era Reformp. 21
The Great Society Era and Civil Liberties Concernsp. 21
The 1960sp. 21
The Kent Decisionp. 24
The Gault Decisionp. 24
The President's Commission and Youth Service Bureausp. 26
The Uniform Juvenile Court Actp. 27
Highlights of Great Society Era Reformp. 28
The 1970sp. 28
The White House Conference on Youthp. 29
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Actp. 29
The Four Ds of Juvenile Justicep. 30
The 1980sp. 35
Shall v. Martin and Preventive Detentionp. 36
Some Effects of Preventive Detentionp. 37
The Evolution of Child, Parent and State Relationshipsp. 37
Still Evolvingp. 37
Crime, Delinquency and Justice: Theoretical Rootsp. 43
Justicep. 44
Justice and the Lawp. 45
Purposes of Lawp. 46
Consensus Theoryp. 46
Conflict Theoryp. 48
Contemporary Perspectives on Punishmentp. 49
Two Competing World Viewsp. 49
The Classical World Viewp. 49
The Positivist World Viewp. 51
Causes of Crime and Delinquency: An Overviewp. 52
Biological Theoriesp. 52
Psychological Theoriesp. 54
Sociological Theoriesp. 55
Critical Theoriesp. 59
Conclusionp. 61
The Relationship between the Drug Use and Delinquencyp. 61
The Juvenile and Adult Justice Systems Comparedp. 62
Our Nation's Youth: A Challenge to the Justice System
Growth and Development: The First Eighteen Yearsp. 67
Youths and Parens Patriaep. 68
Child Developmentp. 69
The Critical First Three Yearsp. 70
The Next Ten Yearsp. 72
Children Living in Povertyp. 77
Homelessnessp. 79
Victims of Lead Poisoningp. 79
The Underclassp. 80
Children with Special Needsp. 80
Emotionally/Behaviorally Disturbed Childrenp. 81
Youths with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)p. 81
Youths with Learning Disabilitiesp. 82
Youths Exposed to Drugs or HIV Prenatallyp. 82
Adolescencep. 84
Youths Who Are on Drugsp. 89
Teen Pregnancyp. 89
The Fading of the American Dreamp. 90
The Family, the School and the Community: Powerful Influences on Youths' Developmentp. 95
The Importance of Familyp. 97
The Family as the First Teacherp. 99
Aggressive Behaviorp. 100
American Child-Rearing Rights and Practicesp. 102
The Spanking Controversyp. 102
Adult Supremacyp. 103
Socializationp. 104
Valuesp. 105
Family-Related Risk Factors and the Disintegration of the Traditional Familyp. 106
The Role of the Schoolp. 110
Origins of Our Public Schoolsp. 110
The Current Focus of Schoolsp. 111
Values and the Schoolp. 111
The Need for Positive Valuesp. 112
Hope for the Futurep. 113
The Importance of Success in Schoolp. 113
How Schools Promote Failurep. 115
Poverty and Failurep. 116
Student Response to Failurep. 116
Truancy--The Dropoutp. 117
The Link between Delinquency and the Schoolsp. 117
Problems Facing Schoolsp. 118
Crime and Violence in the Schoolsp. 118
Fear and Its Effectsp. 123
In Defense of the Schoolsp. 124
Students' Rights within the Schoolp. 125
The Duty of the Communityp. 127
Youths Who Are Victimsp. 135
Children Who Are Neglectedp. 137
Indicators of Neglectp. 139
Consequences of Neglectp. 139
Children Who Are Physically or Emotionally Abusedp. 140
Historical Roots of Abusep. 141
Child Abuse and Neglect Lawsp. 142
The Causes of Abusep. 143
Indicators of Physical Abusep. 144
Indicators of Emotional Abusep. 145
The Seriousness of the Problemp. 145
Three Levels of Abusep. 146
Child Abuse and the Link with Delinquencyp. 147
Children Who Are Sexually Abusedp. 149
Indicators of Sexual Abusep. 149
The Consequences of Being Sexually Abusedp. 149
Sexual Abuse and the Internetp. 150
Cultural Values and Sexual Abusep. 150
The Issue of Credibilityp. 152
Children and Youths as Victims of Crime and Violencep. 152
Violence and the Mediap. 155
The Cycle of Violencep. 157
Missing and Exploited Childrenp. 160
Runawaysp. 160
Thrownawaysp. 162
Nonfamily Abductionp. 162
Family Abductionp. 163
Lost, Injured or Otherwise Missingp. 163
Responsibility for Investigating Missing and Exploited Childrenp. 163
Youths and Suicidep. 164
The Role of Governmentp. 164
Youths Who Break the Law and Those Who Victimizep. 169
Measuring the Number of Juvenile Offenses Committedp. 170
Official Datap. 170
Self-Reportsp. 171
Victimization Datap. 171
Status Offendersp. 172
Vandalismp. 173
At-Risk Behaviorsp. 174
Underage Drinkingp. 174
A Key Issuep. 175
Juvenile Delinquentsp. 175
Definitionsp. 175
Profile of Delinquencyp. 175
Juvenile Arrest Statistics and Delinquency Ratesp. 176
Burglaryp. 176
Arsonp. 178
Larceny-Theftp. 178
Motor Vehicle Theftp. 178
A Brief Recap on the Causes of Delinquencyp. 178
Developmental Pathwaysp. 182
Violent Juvenile Offendersp. 186
Guns and Juvenilesp. 188
Violent Adolescent Femalesp. 189
The Link between Violence and Later Violent Criminalityp. 189
Conduct Disorderp. 190
Psychopathic or Sociopathic Behaviorp. 192
The Public Health Model and the Law Enforcement Perspectivep. 192
Youths Who Are Gang Membersp. 199
Definitionsp. 200
A Brief History of Gangs in the United Statesp. 202
Current Scope of the Gang Problemp. 204
Causes of Gangs and Why Youths Join Themp. 206
Family Structurep. 207
Peer Pressure and Ego Fulfillmentp. 209
Racism and Cultural Discordp. 210
Socioeconomic Pressurep. 210
Socialized Delinquencyp. 211
Other Reasons Why Gangs Formp. 211
Types of Gangsp. 212
Hispanic Street Gangsp. 215
Black Street Gangsp. 215
Asian Gangsp. 216
Native American Gangsp. 217
Other Ethnic Gangsp. 218
White Gangsp. 218
Prison Gangsp. 219
Females in Gangsp. 220
Characteristics of the Youth Gang Subculturep. 221
Gang Structure--Leadership and Organizationp. 221
Associational Patternsp. 222
Domain Identificationp. 231
Illegal Activityp. 231
Gangs' Influence on the Schoolsp. 235
Drugs and Gangsp. 236
Gang Mythsp. 237
The Contemporary Juvenile Justice System
The Role of Law Enforcementp. 243
The Contemporary Juvenile Justice Systemp. 244
Police Dispositionsp. 248
Police Discretion and the Initial Contactp. 250
Objectives in Handling Juvenilesp. 251
Taken into Custodyp. 252
Detentionp. 254
Release vs. Detentionp. 255
Intakep. 257
Prosecutionp. 257
Overrepresentation Issuesp. 258
Neglected and Abused Childrenp. 259
Youths Who Are Sexually Abusedp. 262
Missing Childrenp. 262
Status Offendersp. 262
Curfew Violations and Loiteringp. 263
Runawaysp. 264
Truantsp. 265
Underage Drinkingp. 266
The Police as Mentors to Troubled Youthsp. 267
Serious, Habitual Offendersp. 268
Dealing with Gangs and Gang Membersp. 270
Prevention Strategiesp. 274
Early Efforts at Delinquency Preventionp. 274
Evolution of Prevention Programsp. 275
Police-School Liaison Programsp. 275
Goals of Liaison Programsp. 277
Other Programsp. 278
The Importance of Teachers in Delinquency Prevention Programsp. 282
The Officer on the Street and Youths' Attitudesp. 282
Coordination of Efforts and Community Policingp. 283
Responding to a Changing Societyp. 285
The Role of the Juvenile Courtp. 291
Basic Philosophy of Juvenile Courtp. 292
Jurisdiction of the Juvenile Courtp. 294
Factors Determining Jurisdictionp. 295
Other Cases within Juvenile Court Jurisdictionp. 297
Offenses Excluded from Juvenile Court Jurisdictionp. 297
Venue and Transferp. 298
Types of Juvenile Courtsp. 298
Characteristics of the Juvenile Courtp. 299
The Juvenile Court Processp. 300
Custody and Detentionp. 300
Intakep. 304
Waiver and Certificationp. 305
Reverse Certificationp. 307
Petition and Summonsp. 307
Preliminary Hearingp. 308
Adjudicationp. 310
Dispositionp. 313
Juvenile Sentencing Lawsp. 319
Mechanical Jurisprudencep. 320
Youths Who Come before the Courtp. 321
Those Who Are Neglected or Abusedp. 321
Status Offendersp. 322
Delinquent Offendersp. 324
Issues Facing the Juvenile Court--Dilemmas and Criticismsp. 326
The Fundamental Nature of Juvenile Courtp. 327
Criminalization of Juvenile Courtp. 328
Quality of Representationp. 328
Racism and Discriminationp. 328
Gang Membership--"Master Status"p. 329
Court Files and Recordsp. 329
Proposed Changesp. 331
The Role of Correctionsp. 337
The Right to Treatmentp. 339
Conservative and Liberal Philosophies of Correctionsp. 339
Probationp. 340
Supervisionp. 341
The Probation Officerp. 342
The Current Role of Probation Officersp. 343
Problems with Probationp. 344
Privatizing Juvenile Probation Servicesp. 346
Probation as a Dispositionp. 346
Community-Based Corrections Programsp. 348
Nonresidential Day Treatment Alternativesp. 349
Nonsecure Residential Programsp. 349
The Dilemma of Community Programsp. 351
Intermediate Sanctionsp. 352
Intensive Supervisionp. 352
Electronic Monitoringp. 353
Boot Campsp. 353
Institutionalizationp. 358
Juveniles Sentenced to Adult Institutionsp. 358
Detention Facilitiesp. 359
Training Schoolsp. 361
Juveniles in Public Institutionsp. 361
Juveniles in Private Institutionsp. 364
Social Structure within Correctional Institutionsp. 365
Prison Gangsp. 366
Male/Female Comparedp. 367
The Impact of Incarcerationp. 367
Conditions of Confinementp. 367
Improving Conditionsp. 368
Parolep. 368
Aftercarep. 369
An Example of Effective Aftercarep. 371
Importance of Juvenile Corrections Partnershipsp. 371
The Role of the Broader Communityp. 377
Community Definedp. 378
Perceptions of Communityp. 380
The Community and the Juvenile Justice Systemp. 381
Community Policingp. 382
The Role of Social Workers and Social Servicesp. 384
Needy, Neglected or Abused Childrenp. 385
Current Emphasisp. 385
The Role of the Schoolsp. 387
Gangs in the Schoolsp. 389
The Role of Community Agencies, Businesses and Volunteersp. 390
Community Involvement and Volunteersp. 391
Jobs and Restitutionp. 394
The Importance of Coordinationp. 397
Contemporary Models and a Look to the Future
Approaches to Preventionp. 403
Classification of Prevention Approachesp. 405
Prevention vs. Controlp. 405
Three Levels of Delinquency Preventionp. 405
Which Youths to Target?p. 407
Prevention and the Public Health Modelp. 408
Prevention as an Attack on Causesp. 409
Preserving Families to Prevent Delinquencyp. 410
Preventing Child Neglect and Abusep. 413
Recommendations of the Metropolitan Court Judges Committeep. 414
OJJDP Exemplary Programs for Neglected and Abused Childrenp. 415
Programs in the Schoolsp. 416
OJJDP Exemplary Programs in the Schoolsp. 419
General Delinquency Prevention Programsp. 420
OJJDP Exemplary Programsp. 420
Violence Preventionp. 422
Drug Prevention Programsp. 423
DAREp. 423
The National Commission on Drug-Free Schoolsp. 424
The National Crime Prevention Council's Programsp. 426
Mentoringp. 428
Gang Preventionp. 428
Antigang Programsp. 428
Comprehensive Programsp. 429
YouthCarep. 429
The CAR Programp. 431
What Works?p. 433
Approaches to Treatmentp. 437
Treatment as Tertiary Preventionp. 439
Characteristics of Effective Intervention Programsp. 442
Treatment Programs for Children and Juveniles Who Have Been Abusedp. 444
Treatment Recommendations of the Metropolitan Court Judges Committeep. 445
Service Recommendationsp. 446
Permanency Recommendationsp. 446
Diversion Alternatives--Community-Based Treatment Programsp. 447
Project New Pridep. 449
Foster Homesp. 450
Intensive Supervision/Parole/Probation/Aftercarep. 450
Day Treatment Programsp. 451
Alternative Schoolsp. 451
Youth Centersp. 451
"Second Chance" Campsp. 453
Collaborative Effortsp. 455
Exemplary Programsp. 457
Civil Remediesp. 460
Rethinking Juvenile Justice: A Global Viewp. 465
Juvenile Court Involvementp. 467
A Juvenile Justice Modelp. 468
The Competence Issuep. 469
Restructuringp. 470
Policy Recommendations for Considerationp. 471
The Future for Neglected and Abused Childrenp. 471
Time for a Changep. 472
Rejuvenating Juvenile Justicep. 473
Reinventing Juvenile Justicep. 474
A Global Perspectivep. 474
Singapore and Swedenp. 475
Canadap. 477
New Zealandp. 477
Israelp. 478
Englandp. 478
Scotlandp. 480
The United Nations' Position on Childrenp. 483
A Call for Changep. 483
Restorative Justicep. 483
The BJS-Princeton Project Call for a New Paradigmp. 484
Issues for the Futurep. 485
Juvenile Justice for the Twenty-First Centuryp. 485
Objectives of an Effective Juvenile Justice Systemp. 486
Elements of an Effective Juvenile Justice Systemp. 486
Appendicesp. 491
Glossaryp. 513
Indexp. 523
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.