Birth of Biopolitics Lectures at the Coll�ge de France 1978-1979

ISBN-10: 0312203411

ISBN-13: 9780312203412

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Picador is proud to publish the sixth volume in Foucault's prestigious, groundbreaking series of lectures at the College de France from 1970 to 1984The Birth of Biopoliticscontinues to pursue the themes of Foucault's lectures fromSecurity, Territory, Population: having shown how eighteenth century political economy marks the birth of a new governmental rationality--seeking maximum effectiveness by governing less and in accordance with the naturalness of the phenomena to be governed--Michel Foucault undertakes a detailed analysis of the forms of this liberal governmentality. This book raises questions of political philosophy and social policy that are at the heart of current debates about the role and status of neo-liberalism in twentieth century politics.
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Book details

List price: $20.00
Publisher: Picador
Publication date: 3/2/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 368
Size: 5.25" wide x 8.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.924

Michel Foucault was born on October 15, 1926, in Poitiers, France, and was educated at the Sorbonne, in Paris. He taught at colleges all across Europe, including the Universities of Lill, Uppsala, Hamburg, and Warsaw, before returning to France. There he taught at the University of Paris and the College of France, where he served as the chairman of History of Systems of Thought until his death. Regarded as one of the great French thinkers of the twentieth century, Foucault's interest was in the human sciences, areas such as psychiatry, language, literature, and intellectual history. He made significant contributions not just to the fields themselves, but to the way these areas are studied, and is particularly known for his work on the development of twentieth-century attitudes toward knowledge, sexuality, illness, and madness. Foucault's initial study of these subjects used an archaeological method, which involved sifting through seemingly unrelated scholarly minutia of a certain time period in order to reconstruct, analyze, and classify the age according to the types of knowledge that were possible during that time. This approach was used in Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, for which Foucault received a medal from France's Center of Scientific Research in 1961, The Birth of the Clinic, The Order of Things, and The Archaeology of Knowledge. Foucault also wrote Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison, a study of the ways that society's views of crime and punishment have developed, and The History of Sexuality, which was intended to be a six-volume series. Before he could begin the final two volumes, however, Foucault died of a neurological disorder in 1984.

10 January 1979
Questions of method
Suppose universals do not exist
Summary of the previous year's lectures: the limited objective of the government raison d'��tat (external politics) and unlimited objective of the police state (internal politics)
Law as principle of the external limitation raison d'��tat
Perspective of this year's lectures: political economy as principle of the internal limitation of governmental reason
What is at stake in this research: the coupling of a set of practices and a regime of truth and the effects of its inscription in reality
What is liberalism
17 January 1979
Liberalism and the implementation of a new art of government in the eighteenth century
Specific features of the liberal art of government ( I )
The constitution of the market as site of the formation of truth and not just as domain of jurisdiction
Questions of method. The stakes of research undertaken around madness, the penal order, and sexuality: sketch of a history of �ǣregimes of verdiction.�Ǡ
The nature of a political critique of knowledge (savoir)
The problem of limiting the exercise of power by public authorities. Two types of solution: French juridical radicalism and English utilitarianism
The question of �ǣutility�Ǡ and limiting the exercise of power by public authorities
Comment on the status of heterogeneity in history: strategic against dialectical logic
The notion of �ǣinterest�Ǡ as operator (opérateur) of the new art of government
24 January 1979
Specific features of the liberal art of government ( II )
The problem of European balance and international relations
Economic and political calculation in mercantilism. The principle of freedom of the market according to the physiocrats and Adam Smith: birth of a new European model
Appearance of a governmental rationality extended to a world scale. Examples: the question of maritime law; the projects of perpetual peace in the eighteenth century
Principles of the new liberal art of government: a �ǣgovernmental naturalism�Ǡ; the production of freedom
The problem of liberal arbitration. Its instruments
The management of dangers and the implementation of mechanisms of security
Disciplinary controls (Bentham���s panopticism)
Inverventionist policies
The management of liberty and its crises
31 January 1979
Phobia of the state
Questions of method: sense and stakes of the bracketing off of a theory of the state in the analysis of mechanisms of power
Neo-liberal governmental practices: German liberalism from 1948 to 1962; American neo-liberalism
German neo-liberalism ( I ). Its political-economic context
The scientific council brought together by Erhard in 1947. Its program: abolition of price controls and limitation of governmental interventions
The middle way defined by Erhard in 1948 between anarchy and the �ǣtermite state�Ǡ
Its double meaning
Respect for economic freedom as condition of the state���s political representativity
The institution of economic freedom as basis for the formation of political sovereignty
Fundamental characteristic of contemporary German governmentality: economic freedom, the source of juridical legitimacy and political consensus
Economic growth, axis of a new historical consciousness enabling the break with the past
Rallying of Christian Democracy and the SPD to liberal politics
The principles of liberal government and the absence of a socialist governmental rationality
7 February 1979
German neo-liberalism ( II )
Its problem: how can economic freedom both found and limit the state at the same time?
The neo-liberal theorists: W. Eucken, F. Böhm, A. Müller-Armack, F. von Hayek
Max Weber and the problem of the irrational rationality of capitalism. The answers of the Frankfurt School and the Freiburg School
Nazism as necessary field of adversity to the definition of the neo-liberal critique of National Socialism on the basis of these different elements of German history
Theoretical consequences: extension of this critique to the New Deal and to the Beveridge plans; interventionism and the growth of the power of the state; massification and uniformization, effects of state control
The stake of neo-liberalism: its novelty in comparison with classical liberalism. The theory of pure competition
14 February 1979
German neo-liberalism ( III )
Usefulness of historical analyses for the present
How is neo-liberalism distinguished from classical liberalism?
Its specific stake: how to model the global exercise of political power on the principles of a market economy, and the transformations that derive from this
The decoupling of the market economy and policies of laissez-faire
The Walter Lippmann colloquium ( 26 to 30 August 1938 )
The problem of the style of governmental action
Three examples
The question of monopolies
The question of �ǣconformable actions ( actions conformes )
The bases of economic policy according to W. Eucken. Regulatory actions and organizing actions (actions ordonnatrices)
Social policy. The ordoliberal critique of the welfare economy
Society as the point of application of governmental interventions. The �ǣpolicy of society�Ǡ ( Gesellschaftspolitik )
First aspect of this policy: the formalization of society on the model of the enterprise
Enterprise society and judicial society; two faces of a single phenomenon
21 February 1979
Second aspect of the �ǣpolicy of society�Ǡ according to the neo-liberals: the problem of law in a society regulated according to the model of the competitive market economy
Return of Walter Lippmann colloquium
Reflections based on a text by Louis Rougier
The idea of a juridical-economic order. Reciprocity of relations between economic processes and institutional framework
Political stake: the problem of the survival of capitalism
The question of legal interventionism
Historical reminder: the Rule of law ( l�����tat de droit ) in the eighteenth century, in opposition to despotism and the police state. Re-elaboration of the notion in the nineteenth century: the question of arbitration between citizens and public authorities. The problem of administrative courts
The neo-liberal project: to introduce the principles of the Rule of law into the economic order
Rule of law and planning according to Hayek
Growth of judicial demand
General conclusion: the specificity of the neo-liberal art of government in Germany. Ordoliberalism faced with the pessimism of Schumpeter
7 March 1979
General remarks
The methodological scope of the analysis of micro-powers
The inflationism of state phobia. Its links with ordoliberalism
Two theses on the totalitarian state and the decline of state governmentality in the twentieth century
Remarks on the spread of the German model, in France and in the United States
The German neo-liberal model and the French project of a �ǣsocial market economy.�Ǡ
The French context of the transition to a neo-liberal economics
French social policy: the example of social security
The separation of the economic and the social according to Giscard d���Estaing
The project of a �ǣnegative tax�Ǡ and its social and political stakes. �ǣRelative�Ǡ and �ǣabsolute�Ǡ poverty. Abandonment of the policy of full employment
14 March 1979
American neo-liberalism ( I ). Its context
The difference between American and European neo-liberalism
American neo-liberalism as a global claim, utopian focus, and method of thought
Aspects of this neo-liberalism
The theory of human capital
The two processes that it represents
An extension of economic analysis within its own domain: criticism of the classical analysis of labor in terms of the time factor
An extension of economic analysis to domains previously considered to be non-economic
The epistemological transformation produced by neo-liberal analysis: from the analysis of economic processes to the analysis of the internal rationality of human behavior
Work as economic conduct
Its division into capital, abilities, and income
The redefinition of homo oeconomicus as entrepreneur of himself
The notion of �ǣhuman capital.�Ǡ
Its constitutive elements
Innate elements and the question of the improvement of genetic human capital
Acquired elements and the problem of the formation of human capital (education, health, etcetera)
The interest of these analyses: resumption of the problem of social and economic innovation ( Schumpeter ). A new conception of the policy of growth
21 March 1979
American neo-liberalism ( II )
The application of the economic grid to social phenomena
Return to the ordoliberal problematic: the ambiguities of the Gesellschaftspolitik. The generalization of the �ǣenterprise�Ǡ form in the social field. Economic policy and Vitalpolitik: a society for the market and against the market
The unlimited generalization of the economic form of the market in American neo-liberalism: principle of the intelligibility of individual behavior and critical principle of governmental interventions
Aspects of American neo-liberalism
Delinquency and penal policy
Historical reminder: the problem of the reform of penal law at the end of the eighteenth century. Economic calculation and principle of legality. The parasitic invasion of the law by the norm in the nineteenth century and the birth of criminal anthropology
The neo-liberal analysis
The definition of crime
The description of the criminal subject as homo oeconomicus
The status of the penalty as instrument of law �ǣenforcement.�Ǡ The example of the drugs market
Consequences of this analysis
Anthropological erasure of the criminal
Putting the disciplinary model out of play
28 March 1979
The model of homo oeconomicus
Its generalization to every form of behavior in American neo-liberalism
Economic analysis and behavioral techniques
Homo oeconomicus as the basic element of the new governmental reason appeared in the eighteenth century
Elements for a history of the notion of homo oeconomicus before Walras and Pareto
The subject of interest in English empiricist philosophy ( Hume )
The heterogeneity of the subject of interest and the legal subject
The irreducible nature of interest in comparison with juridical will
The contrasting logics of the market and the contract
Second innovation with regard to the juridical model: the economic subject���s relationship with political power. Condorcet. Adam Smith���s �ǣinvisible hand�Ǡ: invisibility of the link between the individual���s pursuit of profit and the growth of collective wealth. The non-totalizable nature of the economic world. The sovereign���s necessary ignorance
Political economy as critique of governmental reason: rejection of the possibility of an economic sovereign in its two, mercantilist and physiocratic, forms
Political economy as a science lateral to the art of government
4 April 1979
Elements for a history of the notion of homo oeconomicus ( II )
Return to the problem of the limitation of sovereign power by economic activity
The emergence of a new field, the correlate of the liberal art of government: civil society
Homo oeconomicus and civil society: inseparable elements of liberal governmental technology
Analysis of the notion of �ǣcivil society�Ǡ: its evolution from Locke to Ferguson. Ferguson���s An Essay on the History of Civil Society (1787). The four essential characteristics of civil society according to Ferguson
It is an historical-natural constant
It assures the spontaneous synthesis of individuals. Paradox of the economic bond
It is a permanent matrix of political power
It is the motor of history
Appearance of a new system of political thought
Theoretical consequences
The question of the relations between state and society. The German, English, and French problematics
The regulation of political power: from the wisdom of the prince to the rational calculations of the governed
General conclusion
Course Summary
Course Context
Index of Names
Index of Concepts and Notions
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