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Food Preservatives

ISBN-10: 030647736X

ISBN-13: 9780306477362

Edition: 2nd 2003 (Revised)

Authors: Nicholas J. Russell, Grahame W. Gould

List price: $269.00
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Description:

For centuries man has treated food to prolong its edible life, and nowadays both traditional and modern preservatives are used widely to ensure the satisfactory maintenance of quality and safety of foods. There continues to be increased public concern about the use of food additives, including preservatives, resulting from a perception that some of them may have deleterious effects on health. However, as eating habits have changed with an emphasis on what has been popularly termed a `healthy diet', there is at the same time a concern that reduction in preservative usage could lead to loss of safety and protection from food poisoning. While some preservatives are coming under increasing regulatory pressure others, particularly more natural ones, are receiving increased attention and gaining in importance and acceptability.This book aims to support the continued safe and effective use of preservatives within these current constraints. It therefore gives detailed information on the practical use of the major antimicrobial preservatives. Uniquely, it couples this with current understanding of their modes of action, at the levels of cellular physiology and biochemistry, in such a way as to provide a sound scientific basis for their efficacy. It is hoped that such an approach will also encourage the future logical development and use of preservatives.
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Book details

List price: $269.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 7/31/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 380
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

Major, new, and emerging food-poisoning and food-spoilage microorganisms
Introduction
Food-poisoning microorganisms
Salmonella
Campylobacter
Listeria
Yersinia
Vibrio
Aeromonas
Escherichia
Staphylococcus
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium perfringens
Bacillus cereus
Food-spoilage microorganisms
Gram-negative, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive rods
Gram-negative, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative rods
Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-sporing rods
Gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci
Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-sporing rods and cocci
Gram-positive, catalase-positive, spore-forming rods
Gram-positive, catalase-negative, spore-forming rods
Yeasts and molds
Conclusions
References
Major preservation technologies
Introduction
Basis of food preservation
Major food preservation techniques
Low temperature
Reduction in water activity
Vacuum and modified-atmosphere packaging
Acidification
Use of preservatives
Compartmentalization
Heat
Physical preservation technologies
Conclusions
References
Acidulants and low pH
Introduction
Direct action of pH and acids on microorganisms
Lowering the external pH by addition of strong inorganic acids
Lipophilic weak acids that lower the cytoplasmic pH
Potentiation of the effects of weak-acid preservatives by low pH
Other direct actions by weak acids
Acid as an indirect stress: consequences of lowering cytoplasmic pH
Buffering capacity of the cytoplasm
Proton removal mechanisms
Cytoplasmic pH and central metabolism
Low cytoplasmic pH and oxidative stress
Changes in cytoplasmic pH that aid survival
Acids in foods: the antimicrobial effectiveness of different acids
The relationship of pH to growth and survival
External pH: growth and survival
Cytoplasmic pH: growth and survival
Acid-resistant food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms
Escherichia coli O157
Salmonellae spp.
Weak-acid preservative-resistant yeasts
Adaptation to low pH
Conclusions
References
Organic acids and esters
Summary
Introduction
The use of organic acids and esters in foods
Natural food components
Food additives
Chemical properties of organic acids and esters
The pKa value
Log P[subscript oct], the partition coefficient
Solubility
Volatility
General mechanisms of antimicrobial action
Acidification of the external medium
Classical "weak-acid theory," acidification of the cytoplasm
Action on membranes: lipids and proteins
Metal ion chelation
Action on metabolism
Organic acids as antimicrobial agents
Small fatty acids--formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and benzoic acids
Medium-small fatty acids--valeric, hexanoic, heptanoic, and sorbic acids
Medium-large fatty acids--octanoic, nonanoic, decanoic, undecanoic, and lauric acids
Citric acid
Lactic acid
Esters as antimicrobial agents
Simple esters
Glycerol and sucrose esters
Phenol esters--parabens
Adaptation and resistance by microorganisms
Conclusions
References
Sulfite
Introduction
Uses in foods
Mode of action
Chemistry of sulfite
Reactions of sulfite
Uptake of sulfite by microorganisms
Metabolism of sulfite by microorganisms
Antimicrobial action of sulfite
Postscript
References
Nitrite
Introduction
Sources of nitrates and nitrites
Health concerns with sodium nitrite in cured meats
Nitrate and nitrite metabolism
Nitrate metabolism by bacteria and plants
Nitrate and nitrite metabolism in man
Nitrate and nitrite in the diet
Metabolism of nitrate in humans
Oral nitrate reduction
Acidification of nitrite--production of NO in the mouth and stomach
NO synthesis from the skin
Importance of nitrogen oxides in host defense
Mechanisms of NO-mediated microbial killing
Antimicrobial activity of acidified nitrite
N-nitroso compound formation in cured meats
N-nitroso compounds and human health
Effect of additives and ingredients on nitrosamine formation
Regulation of nitrite in cured meats
Nitrite regulation in the United Kingdom
Nitrite regulation in the United States
Nitrite regulation in other countries
Functions of nitrite in meat curing
Effect of added nitrite on C. botulinum
Effect of added nitrite on spoilage microbes
Effect of added nitrite on other pathogenic microbes
Nitrites as coloring fixatives in cured meats
Flavor development with nitrite cured meats
Conclusions
References
Solutes and low water activity
Introduction
Influence of water activity on microorganisms
Multiplication
Metabolic activity and toxin production
Resistance
Survival
Foods
Adjustment
Products
Traditional foods
Novel foods
Microbial response to low water activity: basic mechanisms
Accumulation of compatible solutes
Osmoregulation of compatible solute uptake
Molecular properties of compatible solutes
Gram-negative bacteria and osmoregulation of the periplasm
Peptidoglycan structure, turgor pressure, and water movements
Membrane lipid changes in response to low a[subscript w]
Combined factors
Hurdle effect and hurdle technology
Applications of hurdle technology
References
Bacteriocins--Nisin
Introduction
Definition of nisin activity and nisin potency
Methods of assay
Stability and solubility
Antimicrobial spectrum
Mode of action
Factors affecting nisin action
Intrinsic food factors
Effect of temperature
Resistance to nisin
Toxicological studies
Practical applications of nisin and food preservation
Natural cheese
Pasteurized processed cheese and processed cheese products
Pasteurized milk and other dairy products
Canned vegetables
Meat
Fish and shellfish
Alcoholic beverages
Miscellaneous applications
New target organisms
Future prospects for the use of nisin in foods
Genetics and maturation pathway of nisin
Protein engineering of nisin
References
Natamycin
Introduction
Physical and chemical properties
Mechanism of action
Sensitivity of fungi to natamycin
Inhibition of mycotoxin formation by natamycin
Applications of natamycin
Surface treatment
Cheese
Sausages
Other applications
Regulatory food status of natamycin
General considerations
Regulatory food status in different countries
Conclusion
References
Ethanol as a food preservative
Introduction
Use of ethanol in food preservation
Preservation by the deliberate addition of ethanol
Preservation by ethanol sachets in the head space of packaged food
Is ethanol really a vapor-phase inhibitor?
Anti-staling effects
Indirect use of ethanol in food technology
Synergy of ethanol and other antimicrobials
Antimicrobial mode of action
Defining ethanol tolerance of microorganisms
Ethanol and water activity
Pleiotropic effects of ethanol
Ethanol action on membranes
Are membranes the primary target for ethanol?
Legal considerations
References
Modified atmospheres and vacuum packaging
Introduction
Gases used and their modes of action
Biological effects
Oxygen limitation or carbon dioxide inhibition?
Factors other than packaging affecting spoilage development
Initial contamination
Temperature
Product composition
Non-microbial product deterioration
Color
Odor and flavor
Tenderness and texture
Exudate
Packaging materials
Packaging machines
Microbial ecology
Meat
Fish
Processed meats
Microbial safety
Developments in MAP
Predictive microbiology
Combination treatments
Intelligent packaging
Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References
Surface preservation for fruits and vegetables
Introduction
Factors affecting the quality of fruits and vegetables
Enzymic browning
Respiration
Ethylene production
Microorganisms
Storage temperature
Surface washing of fruits and vegetables
Chlorine
Organic acids
Ozone
Chlorine dioxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Trisodium phosphate
Surfactants
Surface preservatives for fruits and vegetables
Edible films and coatings
Chemical control of post-harvest disease
Ionizing radiation
Light
Biological control
Natural antimicrobials in fresh produce
Summary
References
Naturally occurring antimicrobial systems
Introduction
A systems approach to food preservation
Agents that damage microbial cell walls: lysozyme and other hydrolytic enzymes
Lysozyme
Chitinases and other hydrolytic enzymes
Agents that perturb the physiology of microbial membranes: lactoperoxidase
Agents that impair microbial metabolism: iron chelators and avidin
Agents having a generalized and ill-defined role: plant extracts and phenolics
Augmentation of existing antimicrobial systems: fruits and vegetables
Accentuation of the rate of autosterilization of a commodity
Future prospects
Acknowledgments
References
Starter and protective cultures
Introduction
Bacterial starters and protective cultures
General aspects, definitions, and new concepts for food preservation
Antagonism and mechanisms of action
Food commodities
Fungi in food processing
General aspects, relevant species, and mycotoxins
Mechanisms of antagonism
Application of fungi in food commodities
Future prospects and genetic optimization
References
Legislative aspects
Introduction
Role of preservatives
Acetic acid
Benzoic acid
Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoates, parabens)
Sorbic acid
Propionic acid
Sulfur dioxide and its salts
Nitrites
Antibiotics
Diphenyl
o-Phenylphenol
Thiabendazole (2-(4-thiazolyl) benzimdazole)
Legislation of preservatives
EC legislation
Codex Alimentarius
Preservatives legislation--the international scene
Future trends in preservatives legislation
References
Food preservatives--future prospects
Introduction
Primary production
Food processing and preservation
International trade
Consumer preferences
Stress response and virulence
Cold shock
pH and acid stress
Osmotic stress
High hydrostatic pressure
Heat shock
Risk analysis
The need for risk analysis
The risk analytical concept
Risk assessment
Risk management
Risk evaluation
Risk management option assessment
Implementation
Some specific preservative issues
Low-molecular-weight compounds
Cultures and bacteriocins
Enzymes
Concluding remarks
References
Index