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Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification

ISBN-10: 030646750X

ISBN-13: 9780306467509

Edition: 2002

Authors: Doru Michael Stefanescu

List price: $165.00
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Description:

Casting of metals evolved first as witchcraft, gradually became an art, then technology, and became only recently a science. Many of the processes used in a metal casting are still empirical in nature, but many others are deeply rooted in mathematics. In whatever form, casting of metals is an activity fundamental in the very existence of our world, as we know it today. Foundry reports indicate that solidification modeling is not only a cost-effective investment but also a major technical asset. It helps foundries move into markets with more complex and technically demanding work. However, to the best of the author's knowledge, there have been no attempts to synthesize the information that can be used for engineering calculations pertinent to computational modeling of casting solidification. This book is based on the author's thirty years of experience with teaching, research and the industrial practice of solidification science as applied to casting processes. It is an attempt to describe solidification theory through the complex mathematical apparatus that includes partial differential equations and numerical analysis, which are required for a fundamental treatment of the problem. The mathematics, however, is restricted to the element essential to attain a working knowledge of the field. This is in line with the main goal of the book, which is to educate the reader in the fast moving area of computational modeling of solidification of casting. For the sake of completeness, a special effort has been made to introduce the reader to the latest developments in solidification theory, even if the reader has no engineering applications at this time. The text is designed to be self-contained. The author's teaching experience demonstrates that some of the students interested in solidification science are not fully proficient in partial differential equations (PDE) and/or numerical analysis. Accordingly, elements of PDE and numerical analysis, required to obtain a working knowledge of computational solidification modeling, have been introduced in the text while attempting to avoid the interruption of the fluency of the subject. Numerous modeling and calculation examples using the Excel spreadsheet as an engineering tool are provided. The book is addressed to graduate students and seniors in solidification science, as well as to industrial researchers who work in the field of solidification in general and casting modeling in particular.
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Book details

List price: $165.00
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 6/30/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 352
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.936
Language: English

Length-scale in solidification analysis
Thermodynamics of solidification
Equilibrium
The undercooling requirement
Kinetic undercooling
Curvature undercooling
Thermal undercooling
Constitutional undercooling
Pressure undercooling
Hierarchy of equilibrium
Local interface equilibrium
Interface non-equilibrium
References
Macro-scale phenomena - formation of macrostructure
Relevant transport equations
Introduction to the mathematics of diffusive transport
The differential equation for macroscopic heat transport
Solutions of the heat conduction equation
References
Macro-mass transport
Solute diffusion controlled segregation
Analysis of solute redistribution
Equilibrium solidification
No diffusion in solid, complete diffusion in liquid (the Gulliver-Scheil model)
No diffusion in solid, limited diffusion in liquid
Limited diffusion in solid, complete diffusion in liquid
Limited diffusion in liquid and solid
Partial mixing in liquid, no diffusion in solid
Zone melting
Fluid flow controlled segregation
Shrinkage flow
Natural convection
Flow through the mushy zone
Fluid flow/solute diffusion controlled segregation
Fluid dynamics during mold filling
Fluid dynamics during casting solidification--macro shrinkage formation
References
Macro-Energy Transport
Governing equation for energy transport
Boundary conditions
Analytical solutions for steady-state solidification of castings
Analytical solutions for non-steady-state solidification of castings
Resistance in the mold
Resistance at the mold/solid interface
The heat transfer coefficient
Resistance in the solid
Resistance in the solid and in the mold
References
Macro-modeling of solidification; Numerical approximation methods
Problem formulation
Discretization of governing equations
Taylor series and numerical differentiation
Finite difference discretization of the heat conduction equation
Control volume formulation
Solution of the discretized equations
Applications of macro-modeling of solidification
Model deliverables
Criteria functions
Scaling relationships for criteria functions
References
Micro-scale phenomena and interface dynamics
Problem formulation
Nucleation
Heterogeneous nucleation models
Dynamic nucleation models
Micro-solute redistribution in alloys and microsegregation
Interface stability
Thermal instability
Solutal instability
Thermal, solutal and surface energy driven morphological instability
Influence of convection on interface stability
References
Cellular and dendritic growth
Morphology of primary phases
Interface undercooling and growth velocity models for dendrites
Tip velocity models
Solute diffusion controlled growth (isothermal growth)
Thermal diffusion controlled growth
Solutal, thermal, and capillary controlled growth
Interface anisotropy and the dendrite tip selection parameter
Effect of fluid flow on dendrite tip velocity
Multicomponent alloys
Dendritic arrays models
Volume averaged dendrite models
Complex geometry models
Dendritic arm spacing and coarsening
Primary spacing
Secondary arm spacing
The columnar-to-equiaxed transition
References
Eutectic solidification
Types of eutectics
Cooperative eutectics
Model of eutectic growth assuming only diffusion parallel to the interface
Model of eutectic growth assuming diffusion parallel and perpendicular to the interface; the Jackson-Hunt model
Operating point of cooperative eutectics
The extremum criterion
Growth at the limit of morphological stability
Divorced eutectics
Modification of eutectics
Interface stability of eutectics
Competitive growth of eutectic and dendritic phases
Equiaxed eutectic grain growth
References
Peritectic and monotectic solidification
Peritectic solidification
The Peritectic Reaction
The Peritectic Transformation
Monotectic Solidification
References
Solidification in the presence of a third phase
Interaction of solid inclusions with the solid/liquid interface
Particle interaction with a planar interface
Thermodynamic models
Thermal properties criterion models
Kinetic models
Particle interaction with a cellular/dendritic interface
Microshrinkage
The physics of microshrinkage formation
Modeling of microshrinkage formation
Prevention of microshrinkage
References
Atomic scale phenomena: nucleation and growth
Homogeneous nucleation
Heterogeneous nucleation
Growth kinetics
Types of interfaces
Continuous growth
Lateral growth
References
Stochastic modeling of solidification
Monte-Carlo grain growth models
Dendrite envelope growth models
Eutectic S/L interface growth models
Cellular automaton models
Cellular automaton grain growth models
Cellular automaton dendrite growth models
References
Macro-micro modeling of solidification of some commercial alloys
Steel
Nucleation of primary dendrites
Growth of primary dendrites
Micro/macro-segregation
Inclusions
Cast iron
Nucleation and growth of austenite dendrites
Crystallization of graphite from the liquid
Eutectic solidification
Microsegregation
The gray-to-white structural transition
Room temperature microstructure and mechanical properties
Aluminum-silicon alloys
Nucleation and growth of primary aluminum dendrites
Eutectic solidification
Superalloys
References
Appendix A
Appendix B
Subject Index
About the Author