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Introductory Concepts | |

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Spectrum of laser emission | |

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Spectrum of visible light | |

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Energy of a photon | |

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Thermal energy | |

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Population under thermal equilibrium of two levels | |

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Small-signal gain of a ruby laser amplifier | |

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Threshold inversion of a laser cavity | |

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Temporal evolution of the population densities in a three-level system | |

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Brightness of a diffraction limited beam | |

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Comparison between the brightness of a lamp and that of an argon laser | |

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Intensity on the retina of the sun light and of a He-Ne laser beam | |

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Power spectrum of a wave-train of finite duration | |

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Coherence time and coherence length of filtered light | |

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Radiation pressure of a laser beam | |

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Radiation pressure | |

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Interaction of Radiation with Atoms and Ions | |

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Intensity and energy density of a plane em wave | |

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Photon flux of a plane monochromatic wave | |

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Number of modes of a blackbody cavity | |

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Wien's law | |

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Blackbody cavity filled with a dispersive medium | |

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Power irradiated by a blackbody emitter | |

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Average mode energy | |

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Spontaneous and stimulated emission rates | |

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Natural broadening | |

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Doppler broadening | |

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Temperature of a blackbody with the same energy density of a He-Ne laser | |

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Spontaneous lifetime and cross section | |

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Radiative lifetime and quantum yield of the ruby laser transition | |

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Radiative lifetime of the strongest transition of the Nd: YAG laser | |

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Transient response of a two-level system to an applied signal | |

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Gain saturation intensity | |

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Population inversion of a homogeneously broadened laser transition | |

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Strongly coupled levels | |

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Amplification of a monochromatic em wave | |

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Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Nd: YAG rod | |

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Saturated absorption coefficient | |

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Peak absorption coefficient and linewidth | |

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Energy Levels, Radiative, and Nonradiative Transitions in Molecules and Semiconductors | |

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Vibrational frequency of a diatomic molecule | |

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Calculation of the elastic constant of a molecule | |

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From the potential energy to the vibrational frequency | |

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The Morse potential energy | |

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Calculation of the Franck-Condon factor | |

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Rotational constant of a diatomic molecule | |

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Far-infrared absorption spectrum of an HCl molecule | |

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The most heavily populated rotational level | |

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The emission lines of a CO[subscript 2] molecule | |

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The law of mass action | |

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Energies of the quasi-Fermi levels | |

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The quasi-Fermi levels in GaAs | |

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Derivation of the Bernard-Duraffourg condition | |

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Laser levels in a semiconductor | |

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Frequency dependence of the gain of an inverted semiconductor | |

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Gain calculation in a GaAs amplifier | |

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Differential gain of a GaAs amplifier | |

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Thickness of a quantum well: an order of magnitude estimate | |

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An ideal quantum well | |

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Energies of the quasi-Fermi levels in a semiconductor quantum well | |

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Calculation of the gain bandwidth in a GaAs quantum well | |

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Ray and Wave Propagation through Optical Media | |

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ABCD matrix of a spherical dielectric interface | |

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ABCD matrix of a thin lens | |

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ABCD matrix of a piece of glass | |

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Reflection at a plane interface | |

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An high reflectivity dielectric mirror | |

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A Fabry-Perot interferometer | |

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A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer | |

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An imaging optical system | |

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The ABCD law for gaussian beams | |

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A collimating lens | |

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A simple optical processing system | |

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A laser driller | |

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An earth to moon laser rangefinder | |

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An He-Ne laser | |

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An Argon laser | |

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Gaussian beam propagation through an optical system | |

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Power conservation for a gaussian beam | |

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A "soft" or gaussian aperture | |

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A waist imaging system | |

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Gaussian beam transformation by a lens | |

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Focusing a gaussian beam inside a piece of glass | |

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Passive Optical Resonators | |

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Stability of a resonator with concave mirrors | |

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A concave-convex resonator | |

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A simple two-mirror resonator | |

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Number of longitudinal modes in a resonator | |

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Resonators for an Argon laser | |

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A resonator for a CO[subscript 2] laser | |

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A near-planar resonator | |

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Single-mode selection in a He-Ne laser | |

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Spot sizes on the mirrors of a stable resonator | |

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A plano-concave resonator | |

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A near-concentric resonator | |

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The unlucky graduate student | |

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Resonator with an intracavity lens | |

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Resonator for a cw-pumped Nd:YAG laser | |

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Resonator for a Ti:sapphire laser | |

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Location of the beam waist in a stable resonator | |

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Properties of a symmetric confocal resonator | |

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Asymmetric confocal resonators | |

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A confocal unstable resonator | |

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Unstable resonator with gaussian mirrors: properties of the output beam | |

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Designing a gaussian mirror for an unstable resonator | |

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Unstable resonator with a supergaussian mirror | |

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Pumping Processes | |

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Critical pump rate in a lamp-pumped Nd:YLF laser | |

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Pump rate expression for longitudinal pumping | |

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Laser spot size in a longitudinally pumped Ti:Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] laser under optimum pumping conditions | |

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Optical pumping of a Ti:Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] laser: a design problem | |

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Doping in a solid-state laser medium | |

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A transversely pumped high-power Nd:YAG laser | |

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Longitudinal vs. transverse pumping in Nd:YAG laser | |

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Threshold power in a double-end pumped Nd:YVO[subscript 4] laser | |

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Threshold power in a quasi-three level laser: the Yb:YAG case | |

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Threshold pump power of a Nd:glass fiber laser | |

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Pump absorption in a Nd:glass fiber laser | |

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Maximum output intensity in a Nd:glass amplifier | |

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Electron temperature in a Boltzmann distribution | |

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How to reduce the size of a He-Ne laser tube? | |

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Thermal and drift velocities of electrons in a He-Ne laser | |

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A He-Ne laser: pump rate vs. pump current | |

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Scaling laws and performances in longitudinally pumped gas lasers | |

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Pump rate vs. pumping current in Ar[superscript +] lasers | |

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Ar[superscript +] lasers: pump efficiency vs. pump power | |

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Continuous Wave Laser Behavior | |

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Calculation of logarithmic loss | |

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Calculation of cavity photon lifetime | |

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Four-level laser with finite lifetime of the lower laser level | |

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Rate equations analysis of a three-level laser | |

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Threshold condition in a ruby laser | |

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Thermal lensing in a microchip Nd:YAG laser | |

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Transverse efficiency in an end-pumped four-level laser | |

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Threshold and slope-efficiency calculations in a longitudinally-pumped Nd:YAG laser | |

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Estimate of internal laser losses | |

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Calculation of optimum output coupling | |

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Longitudinal efficiency in a standing-wave laser | |

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Dispersion relation for a Lorentzian line | |

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Frequency pulling in a homogeneously-broadened laser | |

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Calculation of frequency pulling in a He-Xe laser | |

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Quantum limit to the laser linewidth | |

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Tuning of a Ti:sapphire laser by a birefringent filter | |

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Transverse mode selection | |

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Single longitudinal mode oscillation in an inhomogeneously broadened laser | |

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Suppression of spatial hole burning by the twisted-mode technique | |

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Single-longitudinal mode selection by an intracavity etalon | |

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Transient Laser Behavior | |

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Relaxation oscillations in a Nd:YAG laser | |

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Noise spectrum of the output power for a four-level laser | |

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Fast Q-switching in a Nd:YLF laser | |

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Calculation of the pulse energy and pulse duration in a repetitively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser | |

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Quarter-wave voltage in a Q-switch Pockels cell | |

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Active Q-switching in a three-level laser | |

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Calculation of the beam deflection angle by an acoustooptic modulator | |

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Mode-locking of sidebands modes with random amplitudes | |

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Chirped Gaussian pulses with quadratic phase locking relations | |

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On the periodicity of mode-locked signals | |

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Phase locking condition for second-harmonic mode-locking | |

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Pulsewidth calculation in an actively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser | |

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Gaussian pulse analysis of frequency mode locking | |

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Mode-locking in a He-Ne laser | |

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Harmonic mode-locking of a laser in a linear cavity | |

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Calculation of pulse energy and peak power in a passively mode-locked Nd:YAG laser | |

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Pulse duration in an idealized Kerr lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser | |

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Pulse duration in a soliton-type Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser | |

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Pulse broadening in a quartz plate | |

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Self-imaging of a mode-locked pulse train | |

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Solid-State, Dye, and Semiconductor Lasers | |

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Slope efficiency in a Ti:Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] laser | |

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Output power from a Nd:YAG laser | |

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A Nd:YVO[subscript 4] laser in the fog | |

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A green solid-state laser | |

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Yb:YAG laser vs. Nd:YAG laser | |

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Anisotropy in a Cr:LiSAF laser rod | |

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Threshold pump power in longitudinal pumping: ground and excited states contribution | |

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Threshold pump power in a dye laser: triplet-triplet contribution | |

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Slope efficiency in a dye laser | |

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A laser cascade | |

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Longitudinal modes in a semiconductor laser | |

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Beam astigmatism in a semiconductor laser | |

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Current threshold in a GaAs/AlGaAs laser | |

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Slope efficiency in a GaAs/AlGaAs laser | |

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Distributed feedback in a semiconductor laser | |

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Current threshold in a quantum-well laser | |

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Carrier density in a VCSEL at threshold | |

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Gas, Chemical, Free-Electron, and X-Ray Lasers | |

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Low-density laser emitting in the infrared | |

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Low-density laser emitting in the UV - soft X region | |

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High-power lasers for material processing | |

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Internal structure of He-Ne lasers | |

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Maximum output power in He-Ne lasers | |

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Internal structure of high-power Ar[superscript +] lasers | |

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Output vs. pump power in Ar[superscript +] lasers | |

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Current density in a low power CO[subscript 2] laser | |

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Voltage drop in a low power CO[subscript 2] laser tube | |

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Rotational transitions in a CO[subscript 2] laser | |

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Mode locking of a CO[subscript 2] laser | |

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ASE threshold for a N[subscript 2] laser | |

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Pump power in a KrF excimer laser at threshold | |

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Cold reaction in a HF chemical laser | |

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Transition linewidths in the soft-X-ray spectral region | |

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A free-electron laser operating in the soft-X-ray region | |

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Properties of Laser Beams | |

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Complex degree of coherence for a quasi monochromatic wave | |

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Measurement of the spatial coherence by a Young interferometer | |

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Destroy of spatial coherence by rotation of a ground glass | |

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Comparison of temporal coherence between a thermal source and a laser | |

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Temporal coherence of white light | |

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Relation between first-order degree of temporal coherence and fringe visibility in a Michelson interferometer | |

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Degree of temporal coherence for a low-pressure discharge lamp | |

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Temporal coherence of a gas laser oscillating on N axial modes | |

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An interference experiment with partially coherent light | |

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Spatial coherence of the light from the sun | |

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An astronomic calculation based on spatial coherence of stellar radiation | |

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Beam divergence of a partially-coherent laser beam | |

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Focusing of a perfectly-coherent spatial beam | |

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M[superscript 2] factor of a Nd:YAG laser | |

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Brightness of a high-power CO[subscript 2] laser | |

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Grain size of the speckle pattern as observed on a screen | |

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Grain size of the speckle pattern as seen by a human observer | |

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Correlation function and power spectrum of a single-longitudinal mode laser | |

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Laser Beam Transformation: Propagation, Amplification, Frequency Conversion, Pulse Compression, and Pulse Expansion | |

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Propagation of a multimode beam | |

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Amplification of long pulses by a Nd:YAG amplifier | |

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Amplification of short pulses by a Nd:YAG amplifier | |

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Extraction efficiency of a two-pass amplifier | |

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Saturation fluence in a quasi-three-level amplifier | |

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Maximum output fluence from an amplifier with losses | |

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Theoretical limit to the maximum intensity of an amplifier | |

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Index of refraction of an extraordinary wave in a uniaxial crystal | |

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Double refraction in a uniaxial crystal | |

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Second harmonic conversion of a Ti:sapphire laser in a BBO crystal | |

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Second harmonic conversion efficiency in a KDP crystal | |

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Second harmonic generation with a Gaussian beam | |

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Frequency doubling of a Gaussian beam in a KDP crystal | |

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Effective nonlinear coefficient of a KDP crystal | |

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Threshold pump intensity of an optical parametric oscillator | |

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Collinear parametric generation in a BBO crystal | |

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Noncollinear parametric generation in a BBO crystal | |

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Nonlinear index n[subscript 2] of sapphire | |

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Pulse spectral broadening due to self-phase modulation in a Kerr medium | |

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Spectral broadening of a 20-fs pulse in a hollow fiber filled with argon | |

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Group delay dispersion of a medium | |

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Dispersion-induced broadening of a 10-fs pulse in a fused silica plate | |