Before coming to John Jay, Adina Schwartz was a federal public defender and, before that, an assistant professor in the Department of Philosophy at Yale University. Her article, "A Systemic Challenge to the Reliability and Admissibility of Firearms and Toolmark Identification," 6 Columbia Science & Technology Law Review 1 (March 28, 2005), has spearheaded challenges to the reliability and admissibility of firearms and toolmark identification, and has been cited by courts and by the National Academy of Sciences in its reports, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States (2009) and Ballistic Imaging (2008). She has served as a defense expert, consulted, and made numerous presentations on the issue. Courts have also cited Professor Schwartz's articles, "Commentary on Nichols R.G., Defending the Scientific Foundations of the Firearms and Tool Mark Identification Discipline: Responding to Recent Challenges, J. Forens. Sci. 2007 May; 52(3): 586-94," Journal of Forensic Sciences 52(6):1414-15 (November 2007); "Homes as Folding Umbrellas: Two Recent Supreme Court Decisions on 'Knock and Announce'," 25 American Journal of Criminal Law 545 (1998); and "A 'Dogma of Empiricism' Revisited: Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and the Need to Resurrect the Philosophical Insight of Frye v. United States," 10 Harvard Journal of Law and Technology:149 (1997).