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Harmonic Mind From Neural Computation to Optimality-Theoretic Grammar - Cognitive Architecture

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ISBN-10: 0262195267

ISBN-13: 9780262195263

Edition: 2005

Authors: Paul Smolensky, G�raldine Legendre

List price: $55.00
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Description:

Despite their apparently divergent accounts of higher cognition, cognitive theories based on neural computation and those employing symbolic computation can in fact strengthen one another. To substantiate this controversial claim, this landmark work develops in depth a cognitive architecture based in neural computation but supporting formally explicit higher-level symbolic descriptions, including new grammar formalisms. Detailed studies in both phonology and syntax provide arguments that these grammatical theories and their neural network realizations enable deeper explanations of early acquisition, processing difficulty, cross-linguistic typology, and the possibility of genomically…    
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Book details

List price: $55.00
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 1/27/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 592
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.420
Language: English

Toward a Calculus of the Mind/Brain: An Overview
Harmony Optimization and the Computational Architecture of the Mind/Brain
Symbols and neurons: What type of computer is the mind/brain?
Connectionist computation
Symbolic computation and the combinatorial strategy
The combinatorial strategy illustrated: Sentence processing
Other constituent relations
Grammatical and lexical knowledge; argument structure
Explaining the productivity of cognition
The proposed solution
The evidence
Prior evidence
Novel evidence
Strict domination
Universals
Optimality Theory and the cognitive science of language
Philosophical arguments
Recapitulation
Overview of the book
Structure of the book
Chapter-by-chapter summary of the book
References
Principles of the Integrated Connectionist/Symbolic Cognitive Architecture
Symbolic structures as patterns of activation
Symbolic operations as patterns of connections
Optimization in neural networks
Optimization in grammar I: Harmonic Grammar
Optimization in grammar II: Optimality Theory
Universal Grammar, universal grammar, and innate knowledge
Treatment of ICS principles in the book
The big picture: An ICS map
Representations: Form
Representations: Well-formedness; computational perspective
Well-formedness: Empirical perspective
Functions
Processing
Putting it all together
Learning
References
Foundational Implications of the ICS Architecture: Unification in Cognitive Science
Implications for the foundations of cognitive science
The multiple challenges of a unified cognitive science
Substantive integration and the central paradox of cognition
Methodological integration and sectarian warfare
Metatheoretic integration: Model- versus principle-centered research
Connectionism and integration
Illustrative results and integrative goals
Relevance to integrative goals
Caveats
References
Optimality: From Neural Networks to Universal Grammar
Optimality Theory
Markedness and faithfulness constraints
Optimality Theory and neural network theory
Linguistic knowledge and its use
References
Principles of the Integrated Connectionist/Symbolic Cognitive Architecture
Formalizing the Principles I: Representation and Processing in the Mind/Brain
P[subscript 1]: Rep[subscript ICS]-Symbolic structures as patterns of activity
Constituent combination by superposition
Variable binding via the tensor product
Embedding via recursively defined role vectors
The principle Rep[subscript ICS] formalized
P[subscript 2]: Proc[subscript ICS]-Symbolic operations as patterns of connections
Linear processing in neural networks
Symbolic operations in ICS networks
Summary
Multilevel descriptions in ICS
References
Formalizing the Principles II: Optimization and Grammar
Optimization in neural networks
Harmony of an activation vector
Harmony maximization
Optimization in grammar I: Harmonic Grammar
Derivation of the Harmonic Grammar formalism
Relations between lower and higher levels in Harmonic Grammar
Harmonic Grammar and formal languages
A competence/performance distinction
An application to natural language syntax/semantics
Optimization in grammar II: Optimality Theory
References
Symbolic Computation with Activation Patterns
Realizing symbolic structure in activation vectors
The typology
Parietal representation of spatial location
Contextual roles: Propositional memory
Patterns in space-time: Synchronous-firing variable binding
The variable binding problem reviewed
Binding by synchronized firing
Tensor product representations
Synchronized firing as a tensor product
A two-way formal/implementational representation typology
Conclusion
Contraction: Holographic Reduced Representations
Tensor contraction
Holographic Reduced Representations
Squashing: Recursive Auto-Associative Memories
References
Tensor Product Representations: Formal Foundations
Introduction
The problem
Distributed representation and connectionist variable binding
Connectionist representation and tensor product binding: Definition and examples
Connectionist representation
Tensor product representation: Definition
Previous representations and special cases of tensor product realization
Relations among purely local, semilocal, and fully distributed realizations
Tensor product representation: Properties
Unbinding
Graceful saturation
Storage of structured data in connectionist memories
Learning optimal role representations
Extension to recursive structures: Trees
Realizing recursive functions in feed-forward networks
Feedback networks: Grammars
TPPL: Tensor Product Programming Language
Fully distributed recursive representations
References
Optimization in Neural Networks: Harmony Maximization
Groundwork
Discrete-update and continuous-update networks
Feed-forward and symmetric connectivity architectures
Harmony maximization in static and dynamic networks
Quasi-linear units
Thresholds and the bias unit B
Expansion of the core Harmony function
Deterministic neural networks as dynamical systems
Boolean networks
Continuous-valued networks
Summary
Extensions: Beyond Harmony maximization
Stochastic neural networks as probabilistic mental models
Stochastic global Harmony maximization: Boltzmann networks
Modeling a stochastic environment: Harmonium networks
Conclusion
References
Harmonic Grammars and Harmonic Parsers for Formal Languages
Context-free harmonic grammars
Parsing
Grammar preprocessing
Example
Hopfield network
Example
Concluding remarks
References
The Interaction of Syntax and Semantics: A Harmonic Grammar Account of Split Intransitivity
The problem
Split intransitivity crosslinguistically
Split intransitivity in French
A Harmonic Grammar account
Review of Harmonic Grammar
The constraints
The connectionist realization
The networks
Methodological summary
Analyzing the account
Empirical adequacy
Consistency
Comprehensibility
Necessity of semantic and syntactic features
Generality
Extending the account
Conclusion
References
Optimality Theory: The Structure, Use, and Acquisition of Grammatical Knowledge
Principles of Optimality Theory: OT in theoretical linguistics
Structural descriptions
Grammars specify functions; candidates from Gen and Int
Harmonic ordering: H-eval and competition
Violable constraints: Con, Markedness, and Faithfulness
Optimality, harmonic ordering, and constraint ranking
Universality, factorial typology, and Richness of the Base
Lexicon optimization
The structure of Con
Optimality Theory's contributions to linguistic theory
The grammar-processing problem
The grammar-learning problem
Frequently asked "questions": Explanation in Optimality Theory
Conclusion
References
Index