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Negotiation Readings, Cases and Exercises

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ISBN-10: 025621591X

ISBN-13: 9780256215915

Edition: 3rd 1999

Authors: Roy J. Lewicki, David M. Saunders, John W. Minton

List price: $62.50
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Exploring the major concepts and theories of the psychology of bargaining and negotiation, this book also looks at the dynamics of interpersonal and intergroup conflict and its resolution.
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Book details

List price: $62.50
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date: 6/8/1998
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 768
Size: 6.30" wide x 9.09" long x 1.18" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Roy J. Lewicki is the Dean's Distinguished Teaching Professor at the Max M. Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University. He has authored or edited 24 books, as well as numerous research articles. Professor Lewicki received the first David Bradford Outstanding Educator award from the Organizational Behavior Teaching Society for his contributions to the field of teaching in negotiation and dispute resolution. He has won several teaching awards at Ohio State, and held visiting faculty positions at Dartmouth College and Georgetown University.

Negotiation Fundamentals
The Nature of Negotiation
Joe and Sue Carter
Characteristics of a Negotiation or Bargaining Situation
Mutual Adjustment
Interdependence and Perceptions
Definitions. Levels of Conflict
Functions and Dysfunctions of Conflict
Factors That Make Conflict Difficult to Manage
Conflict Management
Approaches by the Parties Themselves
Approaches by Other Parties
Overview of the Chapters in This Book
Negotiation: Framing, Strategizing, and Planning
Framing the Problem--the Process of Defining What's Important
Why Frames Are Critical to Understanding Strategy
Major Approaches to Understanding Frames
Frames as a Process of Issue Development
Goals--the Objectives That Drive a Negotiation Strategy
Simultaneous Development of Goals and Frames
Direct Effects of Goals on Choice of Strategy
Indirect Effects of Goals on Choice of Strategy
Strategy--the Overall Plan to Achieve One's Goals
Strategy, Tactics, or Planning?
Strategic Options--Vehicles for Achieving Goals
Understanding the Flow of Negotiations: Stages and Phases
Phase Models of Negotiation
Getting Ready to Implement the Strategy: The Planning Process
Understanding the Need for Planning
Defining the Issues
Assembling Issues and Defining the Bargaining Mix
Defining Your Interests
Consulting with Others
Assessing the Other's Priorities
Knowing Your Limits
Setting Targets
Developing Supporting Arguments--Research
Analyzing the Other Party
Summary on the Planning Process
Chapter Summary
Strategy and Tactics of Distributive Bargaining
The Distributive Bargaining Situation
The Role of Alternatives to a Negotiated Agreement
Settlement Point
Bargaining Mix
Fundamental Strategies
Discovering the Other Party's Resistance Point
Influencing the Other Party's Resistance Point
Tactical Tasks
Assess Outcome Values and the Costs of Termination
Manage the Other Party's Impressions
Modify the Other Party's Perceptions
Manipulate the Actual Costs of Delay or Termination
Positions Taken during Negotiation
Opening Offer
Opening Stance
Initial Concessions
Role of Concessions
Pattern of Concession Making
Final Offer
Tactical Considerations in Using Commitments
Establishing a Commitment
Preventing the Other Party from Committing Prematurely
Finding Ways to Abandon a Committed Position
Closing the Deal
Hardball Tactics
Dealing with Typical Hardball Tactics
Typical Hardball Tactics
Strategy and Tactics of Integrative Negotiation
What Makes Integrative Negotiation Different?
An Overview of the Integrative Negotiation Process
Creating a Free Flow of Information
Attempting to Understand the Other Negotiator's Real Needs and Objectives
Emphasizing the Commonalities between the Parties and Minimizing the Differences
Searching for Solutions That Meet the Goals and Objectives of Both Sides
Key Steps in the Integrative Negotiation Process
Identify and Define the Problem
Understand the Problem Fully--Identify Interests and Needs
Generate Alternative Solutions
Evaluation and Selection of Alternatives
Factors That Facilitate Successful Integrative Negotiation
Some Common Objective or Goal
Faith in One's Own Problem-Solving Ability
A Belief in the Validity of One's Own Position and the Other's Perspective
The Motivation and Commitment to Work Together
Trust. Clear and Accurate Communication
An Understanding of the Dynamics of Integrative Negotiation
Why Integrative Negotiation Is Difficult to Achieve
The History of the Relationship between the Parties
The Belief That an Issue Can Only Be Resolved Distributively
The Mixed-Motive Nature of Most Negotiating Situations
Negotiation Subprocesses
Communication, Perception, and Cognitive Biases
Communication in Negotiation
What Is Communicated during Negotiation?
How People Communicate in Negotiation
Phase Models of Communication in Negotiation
Perception and Negotiation
The Role of Perception
Perceptual Distortion in Negotiation
Perceptual Error: A Summary
Cognitive Biases in Negotiation
Irrational Escalation of Commitment
Mythical Fixed-Pie Beliefs
Anchoring and Adjustment
Availability of Information
The Winner's Curse
The Law of Small Numbers
Self-serving Biases
Ignoring Others' Cognitions
Reactive Devaluation
Managing Misperceptions and Cognitive Biases in Negotiation
How to Improve Communication in Negotiation
The Use of Questions. Listening
Role Reversal
Mood, Emotion, and Negotiation
Special Communication Considerations at the Close of Negotiations
Avoiding Fatal Mistakes
Achieving Closure
Finding and Using Negotiation Leverage
Leverage as Advantage: Why Is Power Important to Negotiators?
A Definition of Power
Sources of Power--How People Acquire Power
Information and Expertise
Control over Resources
Power Derived from Location in an Organizational Structure
Managing Information Power: The Persuasion Process
Characteristics of Messages
Message Content. Message Structure
Persuasive Style: How to Pitch the Message
Characteristics of Sources
Source Credibility
Personal Attractiveness
Characteristics of Receivers
Attending to the Other
Exploring or Ignoring the Other's Position
Resisting the Other's Influence
Section Summary
Context Factors
Reciprocity. Commitment
Social Proof
Use of Reward and Punishment
Location in a Structure
Chapter Summary
Ethics in Negotiation
Why Do Negotiators Need to Know about Ethics?
What Are Ethics and Why Do They Apply to Negotiation?
What Are the Major Ethical Concerns That Apply to Negotiation?
End-Result Ethics
Rule Ethics
Social Contract Ethics
Personalistic Ethics
What Major Types of Ethical and Unethical Conduct Are Likely to Occur in Negotiation?
The Range of Available Influence Tactics
Types of Tactics Viewed as Ethically Problematic
Typologies of Deceptive Tactics
Intentions and Motives to Use Deceptive Tactics
The Motivation to Behave Unethically
The Consequences of Unethical Conduct
Explanations and Justifications
What Factors Shape a Negotiator's Predisposition to Use Unethical Tactics?
Demographic Factors
Situational Influences on Unethical Conduct
Personality Differences and Moral Development
How Can Negotiators Deal with the Other Party's Use of Deception?
Chapter Summary
Negotiation Contexts
The Social Context of Negotiation
The Number of Parties in a Negotiation
Negotiating within a Relationship between the Parties
The Adequacy of Past Theory and Research for Understanding Negotiation within Relationships
Forms of Relationships
Negotiations in Communal Relationships
Key Elements in Managing Negotiations within Relationships
The Agency Relationship: The Impact of the Larger Social Context on Negotiator Behavior
Audiences: Team Members
Constituents, Bystanders, and Audiences
Tactical Implications of Social Structure Dynamics: The Negotiator's Dilemma
Building Relationships with Other Parties: Opponents and Constituents
Section Summary
Chapter Summary
Multiparty Negotiations: Coalitions and Groups
Negotiations with More Than Two Negotiators
Negotiating Coalitions
Types of Coalitions
Understanding How and Why Coalitions Form
Research on Coalitions
Coalition Inputs. Standards for Coalition Decision Making
Where Is the Strength in Coalitions?
Other Types of Coalition Situations
How Coalitions Form
Power Revisited: Power in Coalitions
How to Build Coalitions: Some Practical Advice
Multiparty Negotiations
Differences between Two-Party Negotiations and Multiparty Negotiations
Managing Multiparty Negotiations
The Prenegotiation Phase
The Formal Negotiation Stage--Managing the Group Process and Outcome
The Agreement Phase
Chapter Summary
Individual Differences
Early Research on Personality and Negotiation
Differences in Negotiation Style and Approach
Creating Definitive Research Tests of the Relationship between Personality Predispositions and Negotiation Outcomes
Efforts to Reconceptualize the Inconclusive Nature of Previous Findings
Later Research on Personality and Negotiation
Conflict Management Style
Machiavellianism. Interpersonal Trust
Perspective-taking Ability
An Omnibus Approach
Sex, Gender, and Negotiation: New Approaches
Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Male and Female Negotiators
Empirical Approaches to Understanding Male and Female Negotiators
The Behavioral Approach
Closing Comments
Chapter Summary
Global Negotiation
The American Negotiating Style
Not Everyone Negotiates Like Americans!
What Makes Cross-Border Negotiations Different?
Environmental Context
Immediate Context
How Do We Explain Global Negotiation Outcomes?
Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
Conceptualizing Culture and Negotiation
Culture as Learned Behavior
Culture as Shared Values
Culture as Dialectic
Culture in Context
How Do Cultural Differences Influence Negotiations?
Culturally Responsive Negotiation Strategies
Low Familiarity
Moderate Familiarity
High Familiarity
Chapter Summary
Negotiation Remedies
Managing Difficult Negotiations: Individual Approaches
Impasse's Antecedents: Entrenchment and Intractability
What Causes Contentious Negotiation Behavior?
Getting Mad, Getting Even
Social Comparisons and Contrasts
General Remedies
Reducing Tension and Synchronizing De-escalation
Improving the Accuracy of Communication
Controlling Issues
Establishing Commonalities
Making Preferred Options More Desirable to the Other Party
Section Summary
Unintended Impasses: Collaborative Shortfalls
The Remedial Power of Integrative Processes
Faulty Group Process
Time Constraints and Deadlines
Generation of Creative Alternatives
Mismatched Models: Intentional and Otherwise
Responding to the Other Side's Dirty Tricks
Responding When the Other Side Has More Power
The Special Problem of Handling Ultimatums
Responding When the Other Side Is Being Difficult
Coping with Different Negotiators: A Summary
Chapter Summary
Managing Difficult Negotiations: Third-Party Approaches
Adding Third Parties to the Two-Party Negotiation Process
Benefits and Liabilities of Third-Party Intervention
When Is Third-Party Involvement Appropriate?
Which Type of Intervention Is Appropriate?
Formal Intervention Methods
The Downside of Arbitration and Mediation
Process Consultation
Informal Intervention Methods
Which Approach Is More Effective?
Dispute Resolution Systems: When the Organization Is the Third Party