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Scaling Relations in Experimental Ecology

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ISBN-10: 0231114990

ISBN-13: 9780231114998

Edition: 2001

Authors: Robert H. Gardner, W. Michael Kemp, Victor S. Kennedy, John E. Petersen, Robert H. Gardner

List price: $45.00
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Description:

This book discusses the impact of recent advances in the theory of "scaling relationships" and identifies critical issues that must be considered if experimental results are used to understand the temporal and spatial scales of actual ecosystems. The complexity of ecosystems complicates experimental design. How, for example, does a scientist draw boundaries when studying species effects and interactions? Once these boundaries are drawn, how does one treat factors external to that study? Will the failure to consider external factors affect one's ability to extrapolate information across temporal and spatial scales? This volume provides a compilation from a broad range of ecologists with…    
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Book details

List price: $45.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Publication date: 8/1/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 352
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.188
Language: English

Robert H. Gardner is a professor of environmental science at the Appalachian Laboratory of the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Studies.W. Michael Kemp and Victor S. Kennedy are professors at Horn Point Laboratory of the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Studies.John E. Peterson is an assistant professor of environmental studies at Oberlin College.

Figures
Tables
Contributors
Preface
Background
Scale-Dependence and the Problem of Extrapolation: Implications for Experimental and Natural Coastal Ecosystems
Experiments and Scale: Key Concepts
Theory of Scaling Relations
Scaling Relations in Natural and Experimental Ecosystems
Scaling Experimental Ecosystems: Approaches and Examples
Comments
Appendix
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Scaling Theory
Understanding the Problem of Scale in Experimental Ecology
Experiments in Ecology
Scale in Ecology
Dealing with Scale
Scaling Organism Responses
Comments
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
The Nature of the Scale Issue in Experimentation
Assumptions and Predictions
Analog and Digital Experimentation
Experiments and Description
Assumptions and What Is Reasonable
Experimentation to Achieve New Levels of Analysis
Comments
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Spatial Allometry: Theory and Application to Experimental and Natural Aquatic Ecosystems
Scaled Quantities and Scope
Similarity, Scaling Theory, and Scaling Functions
Application: Primary Production in Lakes
Application: Fish Catch from Lakes
Application: Biomass Accumulation in Mesocosms
Application: Primary Production in Mesocosms
Scaling Theory: Spatial Allometry for Antagonistic Rates
Application: Adult-Juvenile Interactions in Benthic Communities
Application to Mesocosm Analysis
Comments
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Scaling Mesocosms to Nature
Getting It Right and Wrong: Extrapolations Across Experimental Scales
Successful Extrapolation: An Example
Comparative Frameworks
Extrapolation and Lake Enclosure Experiments
Scales of Interest, Soft Extrapolation, and Context
Comments
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Some Reluctant Ruminations on Scales (and Claws and Teeth) in Marine Mesocosms
The 1-10 cm Dilemma
"As Simple as Possible--But No Simpler"
Hierarchy and Scale
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Evaluating and Modeling Foraging Performance of Planktivorous and Piscivorous Fish: Effects of Containment and Issues of Scale
Conceptual Model of Scale-Dependent Constraints on Foraging
Modeling Planktivore and Piscivore Behavior
Implications of Containment for Growth Rates of Fish
Comments
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Experimental Validity and Ecological Scale as Criteria for Evaluating Research Programs
Scale, Validity, and Ecological Experiments
A Scale-Validity Framework for Experimental Ecology
Biodiversity and Ecosystem-Functioning Experiments as Illustration
Discussion
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Scale and Experiment in Different Ecosystems
Scaling Issues in Experimental Ecology: Freshwater Ecosystems
Scale Considerations When Conducting Freshwater Experiments
Assessing Responses in Freshwater Experiments
Explicit Tests of Scaling Gradients
Lessons to Be Learned from Unrealistic Experiments
Freshwater versus Estuarine Experiments and Ecosystems
Comments
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Terrestrial Perspectives on Issues of Scale in Experimental Ecology
The Experimentalists' View of Scale
Theoretical Perspective of Scaling in Experiments
The Need to Integrate Theory and Design
Challenges for the Future
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Issues of Scale in Land-Margin Ecosystems
Definitions of Scale, Scaling, and Scale-Dependent Behavior
Characteristics of Land-Margin Ecosystems
Scaled Relationships in Land-Margin Ecosystems and Mesocosms
Issues of Special Concern in Design and Use of Land-Margin Mesocosms
Tools for Analysis of Scale and Extrapolating Among Scales in Land-Margin Systems
Recommendations Concerning Future Work on Scaling of Land-Margin System Properties
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Scaling Issues in Marine Experimental Ecosystems: The Role of Patchiness
Patchiness in the Pelagic Ocean
Patchiness Issues Associated with Experimental Ecosystems
Linking Experimental Ecosystems to Marine Systems
Comments
Acknowledgments
Literature Cited
Index