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Research Techniques in Animal Ecology Controversies and Consequences

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ISBN-10: 0231113412

ISBN-13: 9780231113410

Edition: 2nd 2000

Authors: Luigi Boitani, Todd Fuller

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This is an analysis of some of the most frequently used research techniques in animal ecology, identifying their limitations and misuses, as well as possible solutions to such pitfalls.
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Publication date: 6/1/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Luigi Boitani is the head of the Department of Animal and Human Biology at the University of Rome, and a leading authority on wolves.

Luigi Boitani is associate professor of vertebrate zoology at the Universita di Roma "La Sapienza." He is the coauthor, with L. D. Mech, of Biology and Conservation of the Wolf.Todd K. Fuller is professor of wildlife ecology in the Department of Natural Resources Conservation at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

List of Illustrations
List of Tables
Hypothesis Testing in Ecology
Some Definitions
What Is a Hypothesis?
Hypotheses and Models
Hypotheses and Paradigms
Statistical Hypotheses
Hypotheses and Prediction
Literature Cited
A Critical Review of the Effects of Marking on the Biology of Vertebrates
Review of the Literature
Which Markers to Use?
Effects of Markers Among Taxa
Critique of Marker Evaluation Studies
Review of Current Guidance Available for Choosing Markers
Critique of Guidelines Available for Choosing Markers
Survey of Recent Ecological Studies
Future Approaches
Study Protocols and Technological Advances
Marker Evaluation Studies
Literature Cited
Animal Home Ranges and Territories and Home Range Estimators
Definition of Home Range
Estimating Animals' Home Ranges
Utility Distributions
Minimum Convex Polygon
Circle and Ellipse Approaches
Fourier Series
Harmonic Mean Distribution
Fractal Estimators
Kernel Estimators
Home Range Core
Quantifying Home Range Overlap and Territoriality
Static Interactions
Dynamic Interactions
Testing for Territoriality
Literature Cited
Delusions in Habitat Evaluation: Measuring Use, Selection, and Importance
Methods for Evaluating Habitat Selection, Preference, and Quality
Use-Availability Design
Site Attribute Design
Demographic Response Design
Problems with Use-Availability and Site Attribute Designs
Defining Habitats
Measuring Habitat Use
Measuring Habitat Availability
Assessing Habitat Selection: Fatal Flaw 1
Inferring Habitat Quality: Fatal Flaw 2
Advantages and Problems of the Demographic Response Design
Applications and Recommendations
Literature Cited
Investigating Food Habits of Terrestrial Vertebrates
Conventional Approaches and Their Limitations
Direct Observation
Lead Animals
Feeding Site Surveys
Postingestion Samples
Evaluating the Importance of Specific Foods and Prey
Use, Selection, or Preference?
Availability Versus Abundance
Cafeteria Experiments
Improvements on Lead Animal Studies
Use of Isotope Ratios
Experimental Manipulations
The Role of Foraging Theory in Understanding Food Habits
Sample Resolution and Information Obtained
Improving Sample Resolution and Information Content
Literature Cited
Detecting Stability and Causes of Change in Population Density
Detection of Density Dependence
Analysis of Time Series of Density
Analysis of Data on Mortality or Survival
Detection of Delayed Density Dependence
Detection of Causes of Population Change
Key Factor Analysis
Experimental Manipulation
Literature Cited
Monitoring Populations
Index-Abundance Relationships
Types of Indices
Index-Abundance Functions
Variability of Index-Abundance Functions
Improving Index Surveys
Spatial Aspects of Measuring Changes in Indices
Monitoring Indices Over Time
Power Estimation for Monitoring Programs
Variability of Indices of Animal Abundance
Sampling Requirements for Robust Monitoring Programs
Setting Objectives for a Monitoring Program
Appendix 7.1
Literature Cited
Modeling Predator-Prey Dynamics
Modeling Approaches for Predator-Prey Systems
Noninteractive Models
True Predator-Prey Models
Stochastic Models
Autoregressive Models
Fitting the Model to Data
Bayesian Statistics
Best Guess Followed by Adaptive Management
Choosing a Good Model
How Much Detail?
Model Validation
Remember the Audience
Literature Cited
Population Viability Analysis: Data Requirements and Essential Analyses
Qualitative Observations About Population Persistence
Sources of Variation Affecting Population Persistence
No Variation
Stochastic Variation
Demographic Variation
Temporal Variation
Spatial Variation
Individual Variation
Process Variation
Components of a PVA
Direct Estimation of Variance Components
Indirect Estimation of Variance Components
Bootstrap Approach
Basic Population Model and Density Dependence
Incorporation of Parameter Uncertainty into Persistence Estimates
Literature Cited
Measuring the Dynamics of Mammalian Societies: An Ecologist's Guide to Ethological Methods
Social Dynamics
Why Study Social Dynamics?
Evolution of Sociality
Conservation Applications
Understanding Ourselves
How to Describe Social Dynamics
Action, Interaction, and Relationships
Social Networks
Social Structure, from Surface to Deep
Behavioral Parameters
The Bout
The Ethogram
Beware Teleology
Classifications of Behavioral Interactions
Methods for Behavioral Measurement
Identifying the Individual
Sampling and Recording Rules
Ad Libitum Sampling
Focal Sampling
Time Sampling
Techniques for Behavioral Measurement
Analysis of Observational Data
Statistical Rationality
Matrix Facilities: Analyzing Sequential Data
Lag Sequential and Nested Analysis
Searching for a Behavioral Pattern (Markov Chain)
Predictability of Behavior
Sequences Through the Mist
Literature Cited
Modeling Species Distribution with GIS
Habitat Definitions and Use
General Structure of GIS-Based Models
Literature Review
Modeling Issues
Clear Objectives
Spatial and Temporal Scale
Data Availability
Validation and Accuracy Assessment
Literature Cited