Craft of Research

ISBN-10: 0226065847

ISBN-13: 9780226065847

Edition: N/A

Authors: Wayne Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams

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This manual offers practical advice on the fundamentals of research to college and university students in all fields of study. The Craft of Research teaches much more than the mechanics of fact gathering: it explains how to approach a research project as an analytical process. The authors chart every stage of research, from finding a topic and generating research questions about it to marshalling evidence, constructing arguments, and writing everything up in a final report that is a model of authority. Their advice is designed for use by both beginners and seasoned practitioners, and for projects from class papers to dissertations. This book is organized into four parts. Part One is a spirited introduction to the distinctive nature, values, and protocols of research. Part Two demystifies the art of discovering a topic. It outlines a wide range of sources, among them personal interests and passions. Parts Three and Four cover the essentials of argument--how to make a claim and support it--and ways to outline, draft, revise, rewrite, and polish the final report. Part Three is a short course in the logic, structure, uses, and common pitfalls of argumentation. The writing chapters in Part Four show how to present verbal and visual information effectively and how to shape sentences and paragraphs that communicate with power and precision. "A well-constructed, articulate reminder of how important fundamental questions of style and approach, such as clarity and precision, are to all research."--Times Literary Supplement
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Book details

List price: $14.00
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Publication date: 10/2/1995
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 301
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.50" long x 0.81" tall
Weight: 1.144
Language: English

Gregory G. Colomb (1951–2011) was professor of English at the University of Virginia and the author of Designs on Truth: The Poetics of the Augustan Mock-Epic. He is�coauthor, with Wayne C. Booth and�Joseph M. Williams, of the best-selling guide The Craft of Research,�published by the University of Chicago Press.

Research, Researchers, and Readers
Prologue: Starting a Research Project
Thinking in Print: The Uses of Research, Public and Private
What Is Research?
Why Write It Up?
Why a Formal Report?
Connecting with Your Reader: (Re)Creating Your Self and Your Audience
Creating Roles for Writers and Readers
Creating a Relationship with Your Reader: Your Role
Creating the Other Half of the Relationship: The Reader's Role
Writing in Groups
Managing the Unavoidable Problem of Inexperience
Quick Tip: A Checklist for Understanding Your Readers
Asking Questions, Finding Answers
Prologue: Planning Your Project
From Topics to Questions
From an Interest to a Topic
From a Broad Topic to a Focused One
From a Focused Topic to Questions
From a Merely Interesting Question to Its Wider Significance
Quick Tip: Finding Topics
From Questions to Problems
Problems, Problems, Problems
The Common Structure of Problems
Finding a Good Research Problem
Summary: The Problem of the Problem
Quick Tip: Disagreeing with Your Sources
From Problems to Sources
Screening Sources for Reliability
Locating Printed and Recorded Sources
Finding Sources on the Internet
Gathering Data Directly from People
Bibliographic Trails
What You Find
Using Sources
Three Uses for Sources
Reading Generously but Critically
Preserving What You Find
Getting Help
Quick Tip: Speedy Reading
Making a Claim and Supporting it
Prologue: Pulling Together Your Argument
Making Good Arguments: An Overview
Argument and Conversation
Basing Claims on Reasons
Basing Reasons on Evidence
Acknowledging and Responding to Alternatives
Warranting the Relevance of Reasons
Building Complex Arguments Out of Simple Ones
Arguments and Your Ethos
Quick Tip: Designing Arguments Not for Yourself but for Your Readers: Two Common Pitfalls
What Kind of Claim?
Evaluating Your Claim
Quick Tip: Qualifying Claims to Enhance Your Credibility
Reasons and Evidence
Using Reasons to Plan Your Argument
The Slippery Distinction between Reasons and Evidence
Evidence vs. Reports of Evidence
Selecting the Right Form for Reporting Evidence
Reliable Evidence
Quick Tip: Showing the Relevance of Evidence
Acknowledgments and Responses
Questioning Your Argument
Finding Alternatives to Your Argument
Deciding What to Acknowledge
Responses as Subordinate Arguments
Quick Tip: The Vocabulary of Acknowledgment and Response
How Warrants Work
What Warrants Look Like
Knowing When to State a Warrant
Testing Your Warrants
Challenging the Warrants of Others
Quick Tip: Some Strategies for Challenging Warrants
Preparing to Draft, Drafting, and Revising
Prologue: Planning Again
Quick Tip: Outlining
Planning and Drafting
Preliminaries to Drafting
Planning: Four Traps to Avoid
A Plan for Drafting
The Pitfall to Avoid at All Costs: Plagiarism
The Next Step
Quick Tip: Using Quotation and Paraphrase
Revising Your Organization and Argument
Thinking Like a Reader
Analyzing and Revising Your Overall Organization
Revising Your Argument
The Last Step
Quick Tip: Titles and Abstracts
Introductions and Conclusions
The Three Elements of an Introduction
Establishing Common Ground
Stating Your Problem
Stating Your Response
Fast or Slow?
Organizing the Whole Introduction
Quick Tip: Opening and Closing Words
Communicating Evidence Visually
Visual or Verbal?
Tables vs. Figures
Constructing Tables
Constructing Figures
Visual Communication and Ethics
Using Graphics as an Aid to Thinking
Revising Style: Telling Your Story Clearly
Judging Style
A First Principle: Stories and Grammar
A Second Principle: Old Before New
Choosing between Active and Passive
A Final Principle: Complexity Last
Spit and Polish
Quick Tip: The Quickest Revision
Some Last Considerations
The Ethics of Research
A Postscript for Teachers
An Appendix on Finding Sources
General Sources
Special Sources
A Note on Some of Our Sources
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