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Think Critically

ISBN-10: 0205738451

ISBN-13: 9780205738458

Edition: 2011

Authors: Peter Facione

List price: $91.95
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Description:

THINK Critically is acutting-edge self-reflective guidefor improving critical thinking skills through careful analysis, reasoned inference and thoughtful evaluation of contemporary culture and ideas. Taking cues from everyday life --education, business, health sciences, social work, law, government policy issues and current events-- THINK Criticallybridges the principles of critical thinking with real-world application. With ahighly-visual design,accessible narrative, and interactive approach, THINK Critically strengthens studentsrsquo; skills and motivation to make reasoned judgments. This text introduces critical thinking by showcasing what vital and central positive habits of mindare,revisitingandbuilding upon those skillsthroughout the text. Jam-packedwithengaging examplesandmasterful exercises, THINK Critically explains how to clarify ideas, analyze arguments, and evaluate inductive, deductive, comparative, ideological and empirical reasoning.
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Book details

List price: $91.95
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 1/3/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 264
Size: 9.00" wide x 11.00" long x 0.25" tall
Weight: 1.298
Language: English

Purposeful, Reflective Judgment
Risk and Uncertainty Abound
Critical Thinking and a Free Society
The One and the Many
What Do We Mean by "Critical Thinking"?
Expert Consensus Conceptualization
"Critical Thinking" Does Not Mean "Negative Thinking"
How to Get the Most Out of This Book
Evaluating Critical Thinking
The Students' Assignment
The Students' Statements
The Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric
The "Able" in "Willing and Able" to Think Critically
Core Critical Thinking Skills
Interpreting and Analyzing the Consensus Statement
The Jury Is Deliberating
Critical Thinking Skills Fire In Many Combinations
Strengthening Our Core Critical Thinking Skills
The Art of the Good Question
Skills and Subskills Defined
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Nurses' Health Study - Decades of Data
Inductive Reasoning
Cosmos vs. Chaos
Deductive Reasoning
The "Willing" in "Willing and Able" to Think Critically
A Group Engaged in Crisis-Level Critical Thinking
The Spirit of a Strong Critical Thinker
Positive and Negative Habits of Mind
Preliminary Self-Assessment
Research on the Disposition toward Critical Thinking
Seven Positive Critical Thinking Habits of Mind
Negative Habits of Mind
Is a Good Critical Thinker Automatically a Good Person?
Building Positive Habits of Mind
Reconnecting Skills and Dispositions
Clarifying Ideas
Interpretation, Context, and Purpose
How Precise Is Precise Enough?
Language and Thought
Vagueness: "Does the Term Include This Case or Not?"
Problematic Vagueness
Ambiguity: "Does the Term Mean This, or Does It Mean That?"
Problematic Ambiguity
Resolving Problematic Vagueness and Ambiguity
Contextualizing
Clarifying Original Intent
Negotiating the Meaning
Using Qualifications, Exceptions, or Exclusions
Stipulating the Meaning
Your Language Communities
National and Global Language Communities
Language Communities Formed of People with Like Interests
Academic Disciplines as Language Communities
Critical Thinking and College Introductory Courses
Using Maps to Analyze Arguments and Decisions
Analyzing and Mapping Arguments
"Argument = (Reason + Claim)"
Two Reasons, Two Arguments
Two Confusions to Avoid
"Reason" and "Premise"
Distinguishing Reasons from Conclusion
Mapping Claims and Reasons
Mapping a Line of Reasoning
Mapping Implicit Ideas
Interpreting Unspoken Reasons and Claims in Context
Interpreting the Use of Irony, Humor, Sarcasm, and More
Giving Reasons and Making Arguments in Real Life
The El Train Argument from Twelve Angry Men
Huckabee and Stewart Discuss "The Pro-Life Issue Abortion"
Analyzing and Mapping Decisions
"We Should Cancel the Spring Trip" #1
"We Should Cancel the Spring Trip" #2
Evaluating Claims
Assessing the Source Whom Should I Trust?
Claims Without Reasons
Cognitive Development and Healthy Skepticism
Authority and Expertise
Learned and Experienced
On-Topic, Up-to-Date, and Capable of Explaining
Unbiased and Truthful
Free of Conflicts of Interest, and Acting in the Client's Interest
Unconstrained, Informed, and Mentally Stable
Assessing the Substance What Should I Believe?
Donkey Dung Detector
Marketing, Spin, Disinformation, and Propaganda
Slanted Language and Loaded Expressions
Independent Verification
Can the Claim Be Confirmed?
Can the Claim Be Disconfirmed?
Independent Investigation and the Q-Ray Bracelet Case
Suspending Judgment
Evaluating Arguments
Giving Reasons and Making Arguments
Truthfulness
Logical Strength
Relevance
Non-Circularity
The Four Tests for Evaluating Arguments
Test #1: Truthfulness of the Premises
Test #2: Logical Strength
Test #3: Relevance
Test #4: Non-Circularity
Contexts for Argument Making and Evaluative Terms
Common Reasoning Errors
Fallacies of Relevance
Appeals to Ignorance
Appeals to the Mob
Appeals to Emotion
Ad Hominem Attacks
Straw Man Fallacy
Playing with Words
Misuse of Authority
Evaluating Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
Deductive Validity and Language
Reasoning Deductively about Declarative Statements
Denying the Consequent
Affirming the Antecedent
Disjunctive Syllogism
Reasoning Deductively about Classes of Objects
Applying a Generalization
Applying an Exception
The Power of "Only"
Reasoning Deductively about Relationships
Transitivity, Reflexivity, and Identity
Fallacies Masquerading as Valid Deductive Arguments
Affirming the Consequent
Denying the Antecedent
False Classification
Fallacies of Composition and Division
False Reference
Inductions and the Evidence at Hand
Evaluating Generalizations
Was the correct group sampled?
Were the data obtained in an effective way?
Were enough cases considered?
Was the sample representatively structured?
Coincidences, Correlations, and Causes
Coincidences
Correlations
Causes
Fallacies Masquerading as Strong Inductive Arguments
Erroneous Generalization
Playing with Numbers
False Dilemma
The Gambler's Fallacy
False Cause
Slippery Slope
Snap Judgments Heuristic Thinking
Human Decision-Making Systems
The "Two-Systems" Approach to Human Decision Making
Reactive (System-1) Thinking
Reflective (System-2) Thinking
The Value of Each System
Heuristics: Their Benefits and Risks
Individual Cognitive Heuristics
Satisficing
Temporizing
Affect: "Go with your Gut"
Simulation
Availability
Representation
Association
Stereotyping
"Us vs. Them"
Power Differential
Anchoring with Adjustment
Illusion of Control
Optimistic Bias
Hindsight Bias
Elimination by Aspect: "One Strike and You're Out"
Loss and Risk Aversion
"All-or-Nothing"
Heuristics in Action
Deciding What to Do and Doing It
Dominance Structuring: A Fortress of Conviction
"I Would Definitely Go to the Doctor"
Explaining and Defending Ourselves
A Poorly Crafted Assignment
Moving from Decision to Action
Phase 1: Pre-editing
Phase 2: Identifying One Promising Option
Phase 3: Testing the Promising Option
Phase 4: Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option
Benefits and Risks of Dominance Structuring
O.J. Simpson's Vigorous Defense
Self-Regulation Critical Thinking Skill Strategies
Critical Thinking Precautions when Pre-editing
Be Sure About "the Problem"
Specify the Decision-Critical Attributes
Be Clear about Why an Option Is In or Out
Critical Thinking Precautions When Identifying the Promising Option
Scrutinize Options with Disciplined ImPartiality
Listen to Both Sides First
Critical Thinking Precautions when Testing the Promising Option
Use All the Essential Criteria
Treat Equals as Equals
Diligently Engage in Truth-Seeking and Remain ImPartial
Critical Thinking Precautions when Fortifying the To-Be-Chosen Option
Be Honest with Yourself
Critical Thinking Strategies for Better Decision Making
Task Independent Teams with the Same Problem
Decide When It's Time to Decide
Analyze Indicators and Make Mid-Course Corrections
Create a Culture of Respect for Critical Thinking
Comparative Reasoning "This is Like That" Thinking
Comparative, Ideological, and Empirical Inferences
"This is Like That" Recognizing Comparative Reasoning
Evaluating Comparative Inferences
Do the Four Tests of Acceptability Apply?
Five Criteria for Evaluating Comparative Reasoning
Familiarity
Simplicity
Comprehensiveness
Productivity
Testability
Shaping our View of the Universe for Two Thousand Years
The Many Uses of Comparative Inferences
Ideological Reasoning "Top Down" Thinking
"Top Down" Thinking Recognizing Ideological Reasoning
Examples of Ideological Reasoning
Three Features of Ideological Reasoning
Ideological Reasoning Is Deductive in Character
Ideological Premises Are Axiomatic
The Argument Maker Takes the Ideological Absolutes on Faith
Evaluating Ideological Reasoning
Are the Ideological Premises True?
Logical Strength and Ideological Belief Systems
Relevancy, Non-Circularity and Ideological Reasoning
Uses, Benefits and Risks of Ideological Reasoning
Empirical Reasoning "Bottom Up" Thinking
Recognizing Empirical Reasoning
Characteristics of Empirical Reasoning
Empirical Reasoning Is Inductive
Empirical Reasoning Is Self-Corrective
Empirical Reasoning Is Open to Independent Verification
Hypotheses, Conditions and Measurable Manifestations
Conducting an Investigation Scientifically
Perhaps the First Recorded Empirical Investigation
Steps in the Process an Extended Example
Evaluating Empirical Reasoning
Benefits and Risks Associated with Empirical Reasoning