Abnormal Psychology Core Concepts

ISBN-10: 0205459420

ISBN-13: 9780205459421

Edition: 13th 2007 (Revised)

List price: $148.60
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Book details

List price: $148.60
Edition: 13th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/11/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 848
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 4.136
Language: English

Abnormal Psychology: An Overview
What do we Mean by Abnormal Behavior?
Why Do We Need to Classify Mental Disorders?
What Are the Disadvantages of Classification?
The DSM-IV Definition of Mental Disorder
How Does Culture Affect What Is Considered Abnormal?
Culture-Specific Disorders
How Common Are Mental Disorders?
Prevalence and Incidence
Prevalence Estimates for Mental Disorders
The Mental Health "Team"
Research Approaches in Abnormal Psychology
Sources of Information
Forming Hypotheses about Behavior
Sampling and Generalization
Criterion and Comparison Groups
Studying the World As It Is: Observational Research Designs
Retrospective versus Prospective Strategies
Manipulating Variables: The Experimental Method in Abnormal Psychology
Studying the Efficacy of Therapy
Single-Case Experimental Designs
Animal Research
The Focus of This Book
Key Terms
Historical and Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior
Historical Views of Abnormal Behavior
Demonology, Gods, and Magic
Hippocrates' Early Medical Concepts
Early Philosophical Conceptions of Consciousness and Mental Discovery
Later Greek and Roman Thought
Abnormality during the Middle Ages
Toward Humanitarian Approaches
The Resurgence of Scientific Questioning in Europe
The Establishment of Early Asylums and Shrines
Humanitarian Reform
Nineteenth-Century Views of the Causes and Treatment of Mental Disorders
Changing Attitudes toward Mental Health in the Early Twentieth Century
Mental Hospital Care in the Twentieth Century
Contemporary Views of Abnormal Behavior
Biological Discoveries: Establishing the Link between the Brain and Mental Disorder
The Development of a Classification System
Causation Views: Establishing the Psychological Basis of Mental Disorder
The Evolution of the Psychological Research Tradition: Experimental Psychology
Key Terms
Causal Factors and Viewpoints
Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior
Necessary, Sufficient, and Contributory Causes
Feedback and Circularity in Abnormal Behavior
Diathesis-Stress Models
Viewpoints for Understanding the Causes of Abnormal Behavior
The Biological Viewpoint and Biological Causal Factors
Neurotransmitter and Hormonal Imbalances
Genetic Vulnerabilities
Brain Dysfunction and Neural Plasticity
The Impact of the Biological Viewpoint
The Psychosocial Viewpoints
The Psychodynamic Perspectives
The Behavioral Perspective
The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective
What the Adoption of a Perspective Does and Does Not Do
Psychosocial Causal Factors
Early Deprivation or Trauma
Inadequate Parenting Styles
Marital Discord and Divorce
Maladaptive Peer Relationships
The Sociocultural Viewpoint
Uncovering Sociocultural Factors through Cross-Cultural Studies
Sociocultural Causal Factors
The Sociocultural Environment
Pathogenic Societal Influences
Impact of the Sociocultural Viewpoint
Key Terms
Clinical Assessment
The Basic Elements in Assessment
The Relationship between Assessment and Diagnosis
Taking a Social or Behavioral History
The Influence of Professional Orientation
Trust and Rapport between the Clinician and the Client
Assessment of the Physical Organism
The General Physical Examination
The Neurological Examination
The Neuropsychological Examination
Psychosocial Assessment
Assessment Interviews
The Clinical Observation of Behavior
Psychological Tests
Advantages and Limitations of Objective Personality Tests
A Psychological Case Study: Esteban
The Integration of Assessment Data
Ethical Issues in Assessment
Classifying Abnormal Behavior
Reliability and Validity
Differing Models of Classification
Formal Diagnostic Classification of Mental Disorders
Key Terms
Stress and Adjustment Disorders
What is Stress?
Categories of Stressors
Factors Predisposing a Person to Stress
Coping with Stress
The Effects of Severe Stress
Biological Effects of Stress
Psychological Effects of Long-Term Stress
Adjustment Disorder: Reactions to Common Life Stressors
Adjustment Disorder Caused by Unemployment
Adjustment Disorder Caused by Bereavement
Adjustment Disorder Caused by Divorce or Separation
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Reactions to Catastrophic Events
Prevalence of PTSD in the General Population
Distinguishing between Acute Stress Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress
The Trauma of Rape
The Trauma of Military Combat
Severe Threats to Personal Safety and Security
Causal Factors in Post-Traumatic Stress
Long-Term Effects of Post-Traumatic Stress
Prevention and Treatment of Stress Disorders
Prevention of Stress Disorders
Treatment for Stress Disorders
Challenges in Studying Crisis Victims
What We Are Learning about Crisis Intervention
Key Terms
Panic, Anxiety, and Their Disorders
The Fear and Anxiety Response Patterns
Overview of the Anxiety Disorders and Their Commonalities
Specific Phobias
Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia
Age of Onset and Gender Differences in Specific Phobias
Psychosocial Causal Factors
Genetic and Temperamental Causal Factors
Treating Specific Phobias
Social Phobias
Interaction of Psychosocial and Biological Causal Factors
Treating Social Phobias
Panic Disorder With and Without Agoraphobia
Panic Disorder
Prevalence, Gender, and Age of Onset of Panic Disorder with and without Agoraphobia
Comorbidity with Other Disorders
The Timing of a First Panic Attack
Biological Causal Factors
Behavioral and Cognitive Causal Factors
Treating Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
General Characteristics
Prevalence and Age of Onset
Comorbidity with Other Disorders
Psychosocial Causal Factors
Biological Causal Factors
Treating Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Prevalence, Age of Onset, and Comorbidity
Characteristics of OCD
Psychosocial Causal Factors
Biological Causal Factors
Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Sociocultural Causal Factors for All Anxiety Disorders
Cultural Differences in Sources of Worry
Taijin Kyofusho
Key Terms
Mood Disorders and Suicide
What are Mood Disorders?
The Prevalence of Mood Disorders
Unipolar Mood Disorders
Depressions That Are Not Mood Disorders
Dysthymic Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders
Biological Causal Factors
Psychosocial Causal Factors
Bipolar Disorders
Cyclothymic Disorder
Bipolar Disorders (I and II)
Causal Factors in Bipolar Disorder
Biological Causal Factors
Psychosocial Causal Factors
Sociocultural Factors Affecting Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders
Cross-Cultural Differences in Depressive Symptoms
Cross-Cultural Differences in Prevalence
Demographic Differences in the United States
Treatments and Outcomes
Alternative Biological Treatments
The Clinical Picture and the Causal Pattern
Suicidal Ambivalence
Suicide Prevention and Intervention
Key Terms
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Somatization Disorder
Pain Disorder
Conversion Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Dissociative Disorders
Depersonalization Disorder
Dissociative Amnesia and Fugue
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
General Sociocultural Causal Factors in Dissociative Disorders
Treatment and Outcomes in Dissociative Disorders
Key Terms
Eating Disorders and Obesity
Clinical Aspects of Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Age of Onset and Gender Differences
Medical Complications of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa
Other Forms of Eating Disorders
Distinguishing among Diagnoses
Association of Eating Disorders with Other Forms of Psychopathology
Prevalence of Eating Disorders
Eating Disorders across Cultures
Course and Outcome
Risk and Causal Factors in Eating Disorders
Biological Factors
Sociocultural Factors
Family Influences
Individual Risk Factors
Treating Eating Disorders
Treating Anorexia Nervosa
Treating Bulimia Nervosa
Treating Binge-Eating Disorder
Risk and Causal Factors in Obesity
The Role of Genes
Hormones Involved in Appetite and Weight Regulation
Sociocultural Influences
Family Influences
Stress and "Comfort Food"
Pathways to Obesity
Treatment of Obesity
The Importance of Prevention
Key Terms
Health Problems and Behavior
Psychological Factors in Health and Disease
Stress and the Stress Response
Biological Costs of Stress
Stress and the Immune System
Lifestyle Factors in Health and Illness
Health, Attitudes, and Coping Resources
Cardiovascular Disease
Coronary Heart Disease
What Psychological Factors Are Implicated in Cardiovascular Disease?
General Causal Factors in Physical Illness and Disease
Genetic Factors
Psychosocial Factors
Sociocultural Factors
Treatments and Outcomes
Biological Interventions
Psychological Interventions
Sociocultural Approaches
Key Terms
Personality Disorders
Clinical Features of Personality Disorders
Difficulties Doing Research on Personality Disorders
Difficulties in Diagnosing Personality Disorders
Difficulties in Studying the Causes of Personality Disorders
Categories of Personality Disorders
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Schizoid Personality Disorder
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Dependent Personality Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
Provisional Categories of Personality Disorder in DSM-IV-TR
General Sociocultural Causal Factors for Personality Disorders
Treatments and Outcomes
Adapting Therapeutic Techniques to Specific Personality Disorders
Treating Borderline Personality Disorder
Treating Other Personality Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy
Psychopathy and ASPD
The Clinical Picture in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder
Causal Factors in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality
A Developmental Perspective on Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality
Treatments and Outcomes in Psychopathic and Antisocial Personality
Key Terms
Addiction Disorders
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
The Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Demographics of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
The Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
Biological Factors in the Abuse of and Dependence on Alcohol and Other Substances
Psychosocial Causal Factors in Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
Sociocultural Factors
Treatment of Alcohol Abuse Disorders
Drug Abuse and Dependence
Opium and Its Derivatives (Narcotics)
Cocaine and Amphetamines (Stimulants)
Barbiturates (Sedatives)
LSD and Related Drugs (Hallucinogens)
Key Terms
Sexual Variants, Abuse, and Dysfunctions
Sociocultural Influences on Sexual Practices and Standards
Degeneracy and Abstinence Theory
Ritualized Homosexuality in Melanesia
Homosexuality and American Psychiatry
Sexual and Gender Variants
The Paraphilias
Causal Factors and Treatments for Paraphilias
Gender Identity Disorders
Sexual Abuse
Childhood Sexual Abuse
Treatment and Recidivism of Sex Offenders
Sexual Dysfunctions
Dysfunctions of Sexual Desire
Dysfunctions of Sexual Arousal
Orgasmic Disorders
Dysfunctions Involving Sexual Pain
Key Terms
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
The Epidemiology of Schizophrenia
Origins of the Schizophrenia Construct
The Clinical Picture in Schizophrenia
Disorganized Speech
Disorganized and Catatonic Behavior
Negative Symptoms
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Paranoid Type
Disorganized Type
Catatonic Type
Undifferentiated Type
Residual Type
Other Psychotic Disorders
What Causes Schizophrenia?
Genetic Aspects
Prenatal Exposures
Genes and Environment in Schizophrenia: A Synthesis
A Neurodevelopmental Perspective
Biological Aspects
Psychosocial and Cultural Aspects
Treatment and Clinical Outcome
Pharmacological Approaches
Psychosocial Approaches
Key Terms
Cognitive Disorders
Brain Impairment in Adults
Diagnostic Issues
Clinical Signs of Brain Damage
Diffuse versus Focal Damage
The Neuropsychology/Psychopathology Interaction
Clinical Presentation
Treatment and Outcome
Alzheimer's Disease
Dementia from HIV-1 Infection
Vascular Dementia
Amnestic Syndrome
Disorders Involving Head Injury
The Clinical Picture
Treatments and Outcomes
Key Terms
Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
Maladaptive Behavior in Different Life Periods
Varying Clinical Pictures
Special Vulnerabilities of Young Children
The Classification of Childhood and Adolescent Disorders
Common Disorders of Childhood
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder
Anxiety Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
Childhood Depression
Symptom Disorders: Enuresis, Encopresis, Sleepwalking, and Tics
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Learning Disabilities and Mental Retardation
Learning Disabilities
Causal Factors in Learning Disabilities
Treatments and Outcomes
Mental Retardation
Brain Defects in Mental Retardation
Organic Retardation Syndromes
Treatments, Outcomes, and Prevention
Planning Better Programs to Help Children and Adolescents
Special Factors Associated with Treatment for Children and Adolescents
Child Advocacy Programs
Key Terms
An Overview of Treatment
Why Do People Seek Therapy?
Who Provides Psychotherapeutic Services?
The Therapeutic Relationship
Measuring Success in Psychotherapy
Objectifying and Quantifying Change
Would Change Occur Anyway?
Can Therapy Be Harmful?
What Therapeutic Approaches Should be Used?
Evidence-Based Treatments
Medication or Psychotherapy?
Combined Treatments
Pharmacological Approaches to Treatment
Antipsychotic Drugs
Antidepressant Drugs
Antianxiety Drugs
Lithium and Other Mood-Stabilizing Drugs
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Psychological Approaches to Treatment
Behavior Therapy
Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Humanistic-Experiential Therapies
Psychodynamic Therapies
Marital and Family Therapy
Eclecticism and Integration
Psychotherapy and Society
Social Values and Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy and Cultural Diversity
Key Terms
Contemporary and Legal Issues in Abnormal Psychology
Perspectives on Prevention
Universal Interventions
Selective Interventions
Indicated Interventions
The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community
Controversial Legal Issues and the Mentally Disordered
The Commitment Process
Assessment of "Dangerousness"
The Insanity Defense
Organized Efforts for Mental Health
U.S. Efforts for Mental Health
International Efforts for Mental Health
Challenges for the Future
The Need for Planning
The Individual's Contribution
Key Terms
Name Index
Subject Index
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