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Criminology

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ISBN-10: 0205381774

ISBN-13: 9780205381777

Edition: 8th 2004 (Revised)

Authors: John E. Conklin

List price: $84.00
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Book details

List price: $84.00
Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/6/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 512
Size: 5.25" wide x 11.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.2
Language: English

Feature Boxes
Preface
Author Biography
The Study of Crime
The Nature of Crime and Delinquency
The Characteristics of Crime
Juvenile Delinquency
Social Origins of the Criminal Law
Theoretical Perspectives on Crime and the Criminal Law
The Social Construction of Crime
Strategies of Criminological Research
Comparative and Historical Research
Biographies
Patterns of Crime
The Cohort Study
Surveys
Other Strategies of Criminological Research
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Measuring Crime
The Emergence of Modern Criminology
Classical Criminology
Cartography
Positivism
Official Crime Statistics
History of Crime Statistics in the United States
FBI Crime Statistics
Crime Rates
Gathering Crime Statistics
Using FBI Data for Criminological Research
Measuring Criminal Victimization
History of Victimization Surveys
Comparing NCVS and FBI Data
The Dark Figure
Methodological Problems with Victimization Surveys
Measuring Crime by Self-Reports
History of Self-Report Studies
The Dark Figure
Methodological Problems with Self-Report Studies
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Crime and Its Costs
Conventional Crimes
Crimes of Violence
Property Crimes
White-Collar Crime
Is White-Collar Crime Different?
The Costs of White-Collar Crime
Organized Crime
The Costs of Organized Crime
Victimless Crimes
Drug Use
Gambling
Prostitution
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Dimensions of Crime
Cross-National Variations in Crime Rates
Regional Variations in Crime Rates within the United States
Variations in Crime Rates by Community
Crime within Metropolitan Areas
Migration and Crime
Temporal Variations in Crime Rates
Seasonal Variations in Crime Rates
Annual Trends in Crime Rates
Variations in Crime Rates by Sex
Sex and Juvenile Delinquency
Sex and Crime
Sex and Victimization
Variations in Crime Rates by Age
Age-Specific Arrest Rates
Age Distribution and Crime Rates
Age and Victimization
Variations in Crime Rates by Race
Race, Arrest Statistics, and Self-Report Studies
Race, Crime, and Background Variables
Race and Victimization
Variations in Crime Rates by Social Class
Social Class and Adult Crime
Social Class and Juvenile Delinquency
Methodological Problems
Social Class and Victimization
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Biological and Psychological Explanations of Crime
Biological Explanations of Crime
History of the Biological Perspective on Crime
Modern Biological Research on Crime
Biology and Modern Criminology
Psychological Explanations of Crime
Intelligence and Crime
Personality Characteristics
Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders
Psychology and Variations in Crime Rates
Psychology and the Criminal Law
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Social, Cultural, and Economic Sources of Crime
Social, Cultural, and Economic Sources of White-Collar Crime
Free Enterprise: Profits and Competition
Market Structure and Crime
Trust and Credit
Corporations and Crime
Development of New Technology
Social, Cultural, and Economic Sources of Organized Crime
Prohibition and Organized Crime
Organized Crime after Prohibition
Organized Crime and the Economic System
Social, Cultural, and Economic Sources of Conventional Crime
Modernization and Crime
Opportunity and the Economy
Unemployment and Crime
Relative Deprivation and Crime
Anomie, Strain, and Crime
Differential Opportunity and Delinquency
Social Class, Values, and Delinquency
The Subculture of Violence
Gender, Crime, and Feminist Criminology
The Generalizability Problem
The Gender Ratio Problem
Gender Socialization
Doing Gender
Power-Control Theory
Women as Victims, Women as Resisters
Social, Cultural, and Economic Factors and Variations in Crime Rates
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Social Control and Commitment to the Law
Neutralizing the Law
Drift
Delinquent, Dominant, and Subterranean Values
Techniques of Neutralization
Evidence on Techniques of Neutralization
Critique of Neutralization Theory
Social Control Theory
The Family
The School
The Peer Group
Conventional Lines of Action and Adult Activities
Evidence on Social Control Theory
Critique of Social Control Theory
Techniques of Neutralization, Social Control Theory, and Variations in Crime Rates
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Learning to Commit Crime
Sources of Learning to Commit Crime
The Community
The Peer Group
The General Culture
The Media
Sports
Pornography
Correctional Institutions
Differential Association Theory
Critique of Differential Association Theory
Evidence on Differential Association Theory
The Labeling Perspective
Labeling and Self-Concepts
Labeling and Opportunities
Labeling and Subcultures
Critique of the Labeling Perspective
Rewards and Risks of Crime
Reward-Risk Models of Criminal Behavior
The Rewards and Risks of Crime
Critique of Reward-Risk Models
Learning Theories and Variations in Crime Rates
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Opportunities and Facilitating Factors
Routine Activities Theory
A Critique of Routine Activities Theory
Targets of Crime
Property Crimes
Vulnerability of Victims
Victim Precipitation
Facilitating Factors: Alcohol, Drugs, and Firearms
Alcohol and Crime
Drugs and Crime
Firearms and Crime
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Criminal Careers
Theoretical Perspectives on Criminal Careers
Analyzing Criminal Careers
Career Contingencies
The Labeling Perspective
The "Zigzag Path": Criminal Careers and Legitimate Pursuits
Recruitment into a Criminal Career
Typologies of Criminal Careers
Delinquent Careers
Chronic Offenders
Patterns of Delinquent Careers
Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Criminal Careers
Criminal Careers of Robbers
Career Patterns
Planning Crimes
Use of the Stolen Money
Intensive and Intermittent Career Criminals
Criminal Careers of White-Collar Offenders
Leaving a Life of Crime
A Model of the Exiting Process
Reasons for Leaving a Career as a Professional Thief
Reasons for Leaving a Career in Violent Crime
Reasons for Leaving a Career as a Drug Dealer or Smuggler
Exiting and Theories of Crime Causation
Exiting and the Correctional System
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
The Organization of Criminal Behavior
The Meaning of Organization
Juvenile Gangs
The Unorganized Gang
The Organized Gang
Conventional Crime
Professional Theft
Drug Smuggling and Dealing
Violent Crime
Organized Crime
The Mafia in the United States
New Forms of Organized Crime
White-Collar Crime
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Community Reactions to Crime
Fear of Crime
Consequences of the Fear of Crime
Informal Control of Crime
Community and Informal Social Control
Defensible Space and Informal Social Control
Individual Response to Crime
Bystander Responses to Crime
Collective Response to Crime
A Historical and Comparative Perspective
Urban Patrol Groups
Neighborhood Watches
Community Crime-Prevention Strategies
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
The Criminal Justice System
The Police
History of the Police
Police Abuses of Authority
The Clearance Rate
Criminal Courts
The Bail System
Preventive Detention
Prosecutors
Defense Attorneys
Judges
Juries
Plea Bargaining
Probation
Sentence Disparity
The Prisons
History of Prisons
The Prison Population
Parole
The Victim in the Criminal Justice System
Compensation
Restitution
The Changing Role of the Victim
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Deterrence, Incapacitation, Retribution, and Rehabilitation
Deterrence
Assumptions about Behavior
Deterrence and Other Effects of Penalties
Deterrence and the Criminal Act
Deterrence and the Sanctioning Process
Deterrence and the Criminal Justice System
Incapacitation
Selective Incapacitation
Career Criminal Programs
"Three Strikes and You're Out"
Retribution
A System of Just Deserts
Retribution and the Criminal Justice System
Rehabilitation
Rehabilitation and the Criminal Justice System
Types of Treatment
Does Rehabilitation Work?
Reaffirming Rehabilitation
Reintegrating the Offender into Society
The Future of Rehabilitation
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions
For Further Study
Solving the Crime Problem
Ideological Approaches to Solving the Crime Problem
The Conservative Approach
The Liberal Approach
The Radical Approach
Attitudes toward the Causes and Prevention of Crime
The Politics of Crime
The President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice
The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
The 1968 and 1972 Presidential Elections
The Crime Issue during the Reagan Administration
The 1988 Presidential Election and the George H. W. Bush Administration
The 1992 and 1996 Elections and the Clinton Administration
The 2000 Presidential Election and the George W. Bush Administration
Crime and the Criminal Justice System
Overreach of the Criminal Law
The Police
The Courts
The Prisons
Situational Crime Prevention
Target Hardening
Self-Protective Measures
Informal Social Control
Community Crime Prevention
Dealing with the Causes of Crime
Economic Factors
The Process of Social Change
Political Factors
Community Ties
The Family
The School
Discrimination
Conclusion
Summary
Important Terms
Review Questions