Cross-Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications

ISBN-10: 0205253237

ISBN-13: 9780205253234

Edition: 5th 2013 (Revised)

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Book details

List price: $46.99
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Publication date: 7/5/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 400
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.760
Language: English

Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology
What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology?
Basic Definitions
Society, Race, and Ethnicity
Knowledge in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Cultural Traditionalism
Empirical Examination of Culture
Collectivism and Individualism: Further Research
Cultural Syndromes
Evolutionary Approach
Sociological Approach
Ecocultural Approach
The Cultural Mixtures Approach
The Integrative Approach: A Summary
Indigenous Psychology
A Brief History of the Field
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research
Goals of Cross-Cultural Research
Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scales
Quantitative Approach: Looking for Links and Differences
Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Study
Sample Selection
Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychology
Survey Methods
Experimental Studies
Content Analysis
Focus Group Methodology
Meta-Analysis: Research of Research
A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translation
Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principles
On Similarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applications
Cultural Dichotomies
There Are Fewer Differences than One Might Think
There Are More Differences than One Might Expect
Avoiding Bias of Generalizations
Know More About Cultures You Examine
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology
The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribe
Differentiating Dichotomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Gray?
The Similarity-Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different
The Barnum Effect: "One-Size-Fits-All" Descriptions
The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World Through Schema-Colored Glasses
The Representativeness Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization
The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events
The Fundamental Attribution Error: Underestimating the Impact of External Influences
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality
Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing "What" with "Why"
Bidirectional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathways
Bidirectional Causation
Multiple Causation
The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line Between "Is" and "Should"
The Belief Perseverance Effect: "Don't Confuse Me with the Facts!"
Conclusions: "To Metathink or Not to Metathink?"
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness
Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles
How Culture Influences What We Perceive
How People Perceive Pictures
Perception of Depth
Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions?
Some Cultural Patterns of Drawing
Perception of Color
Other Senses
Perception of Time
Perception of the Beautiful
Perception of Music
Consciousness and Culture
Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams
Beyond Altered States of Consciousness
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Defining intelligence
Ethnic Differences in IQ Scores
Explaining Group Differences in Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior
Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence?
Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biases
A Word About "Cultural Literacy"
Environment and Intelligence
Socioeconomic Factors
The Family Factor
"Natural Selection" and IQ Scores
Cultural Values of Cognition
General Cognition: What Is "Underneath" Intelligence?
Formal and Mathematical Reasoning
Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systems
Culture, Tests, and Motivation
IQ, Culture, and Social Justice
And in the End, Moral Values
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experience
You Cannot Explain Pain If You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experience
Emotions: Different or Universal?
Physiological Arousal
The Meaning of Preceding Events
Emotion as an Evaluation
We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Way
How People Assess Emotional Experience
When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress and Anxiety
Expression of Emotion
When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Anger
Emotion and Inclination to Act
Emotion and Judgment
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Motivation and Behavior
A Glance into Evolution
Social Science: See the Society First
Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivation
The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis
Humanistic Theories
Learning and Motivation
A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preference
When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disorders
Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivation
Aggressive Motivation and Violence
Culture and Sexuality
Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similarities
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Human Development and Socialization
Development and Socialization
Quality of Life and the Child's Development
Norms, Customs, and Child Care
Parental Values and Expectations
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Piaget�s Stages of Cognitive Development
Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlberg
Developmental Stages
Life Before Birth: Prenatal Period
First Steps: Infancy
Discovering the World: Childhood
Major Rehearsal: Adolescence
Late Adulthood
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Psychological Disorders
American Background: DSM-IV
Two Views on Culture and Psychopathology
Central and Peripheral Symptoms: An Outcome of the Debate Between Universalists and Relativists
Culture-Bound Syndromes
Anxiety Disorders
Depressive Disorders
Culture and Suicide
Personality Disorders
Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound?
Psychodiagnostic Biases
Culture Match?
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Social Perception and Social Cognition
Western and Non-Western Values
Striving for Consistent: The Cognitive Balance Theory
Avoiding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonance
Psychological Dogmatism
Social Attribution
Attribution as Locus of Control
Attribution of Success and Failure
Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body?
Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures
Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizations
On "National Character"
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Social Interaction
Universal Interaction
Direct Contacts and Body Language
Is Conformity Universal across Cultures?
Following Orders
Social Influence
Feeling Good About Some Views
Is Social Loafing Universal?
Cooperation and Competition
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights
Spirituality, Science, and Health
Business Decisions
Working with Immigrants
Culture, Behavior, and the Law
Human Rights
Working and Serving Abroad
Religion: A Campus Context
Chapter Summary
Key Terms
Author Index
Subject Index
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