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Advocacy and Opposition An Introduction to Argumentation

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ISBN-10: 020519379X

ISBN-13: 9780205193790

Edition: 3rd 1996

Authors: Karyn C. Rybacki, Donald J. Rybacki

List price: $50.00
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Book details

List price: $50.00
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 1996
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 259
Size: 6.30" wide x 9.45" long
Weight: 0.946
Language: English

Preface
What Is Argumentation?
The Nature of Argumentation
The Nature of the Audience
The Historical Development of Argumentation
Ethical Standards for Argumentation
Clarity
Honesty
Efficiency
Relevance
Discourse Ethics
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
Where Do I Begin in Argumentation?
Fields of Argumentation
Presumption
Burden of Proof
The Prima Facie Case
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
What Am I Going to Argue About?
The Nature of Propositions
Selecting Terms for Definition
Specifying Direction of Change
Identifying Key Issues
The Classification of Propositions
Propositions of Fact
Propositions of Value
Propositions of Policy
Phrasing the Proposition
Defining the Key Terms
Rules of Definition
Terms Needing Definition
How to Define Terms
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
How Do I Analyze Propositions?
Locating the Immediate Cause
Immediate Cause in Factual Propositions
Immediate Cause in Value Propositions
Immediate Cause in Policy Propositions
Investigating the History
Historical Background in Factual Propositions
Historical Background in Value Propositions
Historical Background in Policy Propositions
Defining Key Terms and Creating the Primary Inference
Key Terms in Factual Propositions
Key Terms in Value Propositions
Key Terms in Policy Propositions
Determining the Issues
Stock Issues for Factual Propositions
Stock Issues for Value Propositions
Stock Issues for Policy Propositions
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
How Is a Unit of Argument Created?
The Toulmin Model of Argument
Claims
Grounds
Warrant
Backing
Qualifiers
Rebuttals
Simple, Chain, and Cluster Arguments
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
How Do I Prove My Argument?
The Discovery of Evidence
Subject Heading Searches
Books
Periodicals
Newspapers
Government Documents
Fact Books, Encyclopedias, and Other Printed Resources
Types and Tests of Evidence
Evidence of Fact
Evidence from Opinion
Recording Evidence
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
How Do I Reason with My Audience?
Argument from Cause
Argument from Sign
Argument from Generalization
Argument from Parallel Case
Argument from Analogy
Argument from Authority
Argument from Dilemma
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
What Should I Avoid?
Fallacies in Reasoning
Hasty Generalization
Transfer
Irrelevant Arguments
Circular Reasoning
Avoiding the Issue
Forcing a Dichotomy
Fallacies of Appeal
Appeal to Ignorance
Appeal to the People
Appeal to Emotion
Appeal to Authority
Appeal to Tradition
Appeal to Humor
Fallacies of Language
Ambiguity and Equivocation
Emotionally Loaded Language
Technical Jargon
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
How Are Factual Propositions Argued?
Advocating Propositions of Fact
Building the Prima Facie Case
Preempting Opposing Arguments
Argument in Action
Opposing Propositions of Fact
Evaluating the Primary Inference
Using Presumption to Dispute the Primary Inference
Refuting by Denial and Extenuation
Responding to Preemptive Arguments
Argument in Action
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
How Are Value Propositions Argued?
Values in Conflict
Value Change
Values and Culture
Advocating Propositions of Value
Defining the Value Object
Identifying the Hierarchy
Specifying the Criteria
Measuring the Value Object
Argument in Action
Opposing Propositions of Value
Establishing Strategy
Examining Definitions and Hierarchy
Challenging the Criteria
Refuting the Measurement
Argument in Action
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
How Are Policy Propositions Argued?
Advocating Propositions of Policy
Advocacy of the First Stock Issue
Advocacy of the Second Stock Issue
Advocacy of the Third Stock Issue
Argument in Action
Opposing Propositions of Policy
Establish Strategy
Examine Definitions
Refute the Reason for Change
Refute the Consequences of Change
Offer a Counterproposal
Argument in Action
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
How Do I Present My Arguments to an Audience?
Audience Analysis
The General Audience
The Actual Audience
Language Choice and Style
Words as Symbols
The Elements of Style
Introductions, Transitions, and Conclusions
Delivery Techniques
Use of Voice
Use of Body
Use of Visual Aids
Building Credibility with an Audience
External Credibility
Internal Credibility
Managing Your Credibility
Suggested Supplementary Readings
References
What Are the Rules of the Game?
Debate Formats
Speaker Responsibilities
Burden of Clash
Cross-Examination
Flow Sheeting
How Do I Write an Argumentative Brief?
References
Glossary
Index