Christian Haerpfer is Associate Professor (Reader) of Politics and Head of the Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Aberdeen, UK. He is also Director of the European Centre for Comparative Survey Research (ECCSR) at the University of Aberdeen. Patrick Bernhagen isLecturer in the Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Aberdeen, UK, where he teaches courses in democratic theory and research methods. Ronald Inglehart is Professor of Political Science and Program Director at the Institute of Social Research, University of Michigan. He is the founding and acting President of the World Values Surveys Association. Christian Welzel is Professor of Political Science at Jacobs University Bremen (JUB). He is a member of the Executive Committee of the World Values Surveys Association.