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How Languages Are Learned

ISBN-10: 0194541266

ISBN-13: 9780194541268

Edition: 4th 2013

Authors: Patsy M. Lightbown, Nina Spada

List price: $23.00
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Description:

A thoroughly updated edition of this award-winning, accessible guide to the study of language acquisition.
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Book details

List price: $23.00
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 1/24/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 304
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

Acknowledgements
Preface to the fourth edition
Introduction
Before we begin…
Language learning in early childhood
Preview
First language acquisition
The first three years: Milestones and developmental sequences
The pre-school years
The school years
Explaining first language acquisition
The behaviourist perspective
The innatist perspective
Interactionist/developmental perspectives
Language disorders and delays
Childhood bilingualism
Summary
Suggestions for further reading
Second language learning
Preview
Learner characteristics
Learning conditions
Studying the language of second language learners
Contrastive analysis, error analysis, and interlanguage
Developmental sequences
More about first language influence
Vocabulary
Pragmatics
Phonology
Sampling learners' language
Summary
Suggestions for further reading
Individual differences in second language learning
Preview
Research on learner characteristics
Intelligence
Language learning aptitude
Learning styles
Personality
Attitudes and motivation
Motivation in the classroom
Identity and ethnic group affiliation
Learner beliefs
Individual differences and classroom instruction
Age and second language learning
The critical period: More than just pronunciation?
Intuitions of grammaticality
Rate of learning
Age and second language instruction
Summary
Suggestions for further reading
Explaining second language learning
Preview
The behaviourist perspective
Second language applications: Mimicry and memorization
The innatist perspective
Second language applications: Krashen's 'Monitor Model'
The cognitive perspective
Information processing
Usage-based learning
The competition model
Language and the brain
Second language applications: Interacting, noticing, processing, and practising
The sociocultural perspective
Second language applications: Learning by talking
Summary
Suggestions for further reading
Observing learning and teaching in the second language classroom
Preview
Natural and instructional settings
In natural acquisition settings
In structure-based instructional settings
In communicative instructional settings
Observation schemes
Classroom comparisons: Teacher-student interactions
Classroom comparisons: Student-student interactions
Corrective feedback in the classroom
Questions in the classroom
Ethnography
Summary
Suggestions for further reading
Second language learning in the classroom
Preview
Proposals for teaching
Get it right from the beginning
Just listen … and read
Let's talk
Get two for one
Teach what is teachable
Get it right in the end
Assessing the proposals
Summary
Suggestions for further reading
Popular ideas about language learning revisited
Preview
Reflecting on the popular ideas: Learning from research
Conclusion
Glossary
Bibliography
Index