Understanding Scientific Reasoning

ISBN-10: 015506326X

ISBN-13: 9780155063266

Edition: 5th 2006

List price: $152.95 Buy it from $148.85
This item qualifies for FREE shipping

*A minimum purchase of $35 is required. Shipping is provided via FedEx SmartPost® and FedEx Express Saver®. Average delivery time is 1 – 5 business days, but is not guaranteed in that timeframe. Also allow 1 - 2 days for processing. Free shipping is eligible only in the continental United States and excludes Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico. FedEx service marks used by permission."Marketplace" orders are not eligible for free or discounted shipping.

30 day, 100% satisfaction guarantee

If an item you ordered from TextbookRush does not meet your expectations due to an error on our part, simply fill out a return request and then return it by mail within 30 days of ordering it for a full refund of item cost.

Learn more about our returns policy


Not everything that claims to be science is. UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC REASONING shows you easy-to-use principles that let you distinguish good science from bad information you encounter in both textbooks and the popular media. And because it uses the same processes that scientists use (but simplified), you'll know you're getting the most reliable instruction around. You'll also learn how to reason through case studies using the same informal logic skills employed by scientists.
New Starting from $148.85
what's this?
Rush Rewards U
Members Receive:
You have reached 400 XP and carrot coins. That is the daily max!
Study Briefs

Limited time offer: Get the first one free! (?)

All the information you need in one place! Each Study Brief is a summary of one specific subject; facts, figures, and explanations to help you learn faster.

Customers also bought

Book details

List price: $152.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 7/13/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 308
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.276
Language: English

Why Understand Scientific Reasoning?
Why Study Scientific Reasoning?
Some Preliminary Examples
The Expanding Universe
Global Warming
Cigarette Smoking and Coronary Heart Disease
How to Study Scientific Reasoning
How Should We Understand Scientific Reasoning?
General Strategy
A Computer Analogy
Reasoning as a Skill
Theoretical Hypotheses
Understanding and Evaluating Theoretical Hypotheses
The Double Helix: A Case Study
The Three-Chain Model
The Two-Chain Model
Understanding Episodes in Science
The Human Context of Science
Exploring How the World Works
Finding a Problem
Constructing Models
Deciding Whether a Model Fits
Convincing Others
Spreading the Word
Models and Theories
Scale Models
Analog Models
Models and Maps
Theoretical Models
Theoretical Hypotheses
Data from the Real World
Predictions from Models
The Components of a Scientific Episode
Evaluating Theoretical Hypotheses
Evidence That a Model Does Not Fit the Real World
Evidence That a Model Does Fit the Real World
A Program for Evaluating Theoretical Hypotheses
Why the Program Works
How the Program Works: Three Examples
A Case of Negative Evidence
A Case of Positive Evidence
A Case of Inconclusive Data
Crucial Experiments
The Structure of Crucial Experiments
Analysis of a Crucial Experiment
Model Development
A Case of Model Development
Historical Episodes
The Phases of Venus
Isaac Newton and Halley's Comet
Newtonian Models
Halley's Comet
The Downfall of the Phlogiston Theory
Darwin and Evolution
Special Creation
Darwin's Finches
Darwin's Model of Evolutionary Development
Mendelian Genetics
Mendel's Original Experiments
Mendel's Model
The Backcross Test
The Revolution in Geology
Seafloor Spreading
Magnetism, Geomagnetism, and Paleomagnetism
Marginal Science
Freudian Psychology
Freud's Theory
The Case of Little Hans
Freud's Hypothesis
The Predictions Are Vague
There Are Multiple Predictions
Astrology as an Interpretative Framework
Extraterrestrial Visitation
An Alternative Model
What about the Data?
In Search of Bridey Murphy
Extrasensory Perception
Speaking of Probability
The Burden of Proof
Statistical and Causal Hypotheses
Statistical Models and Probability
Why Statistical and Probabilistic Models are Important
The Elements of a Statistical Study
The Real-World Population
The Sample
A Model of the Population
A Model of the Sample
Putting the Elements Together
Proportions and Distributions
Simple Correlations
Variables not Correlated
Variables Correlated
Symmetry of Correlations
Strength of Correlations
Probability Models
A Probability Model
Simple Addition Rule
Simple Multiplication Rule
Conditional Probabilities
The Flippant Judge
The Problem
The Solution
Random Sampling: Two Trials
Three, Four, and Five Trials
Large Samples
Expected Frequency
Standard Deviation
The Value of Large Samples
Sampling with Unequal Probabilities
Correlation Coefficient
Evaluating Statistical Hypotheses
Margin of Error
Sample Size and Margin of Error
Confidence Level and Margin of Error
Sample Frequency and Margin of Error
Evaluating Distributions and Correlations
Evaluating Distributions
Evaluating Correlations
Evidence for a Correlation
Lack of Evidence for a Correlation
Estimating the Strength of a Correlation
Confidence Levels for Correlations
Statistical Significance
Statistically Significant Differences
Statistical Significance and Strength of Correlations
Evaluating Correlations: a Quick and Dirty Method
Survey Sampling
The 1997-98 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) World Health Organization (WHO) Cross-National Survey
How the Survey was Carried Out
Selected Data
Evaluating Statistical Hypotheses
The Real-World Population
Sample Data
A Statistical Model
Random Sampling
Evaluating the Hypothesis
Summing Up
A Program for Evaluating Statistical Hypotheses
Physical Fighting
Weapon Carrying in Self-Defense
Problems with Survey Sampling
Nonrandom Sampling
Unreliability of Information
The Exit Polls Discrepancy in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election
Formula for Margin of Error
Formula for Statistically Significant Differences
Formula for Correctly Adding Margins of Error
Causal Models
Correlation and Causation
Correlation without Causation
Causation is not Symmetric
Causal Production
Causal Models for Individuals
A Deterministic Model
Could Humans be Deterministic Systems?
A Probabilistic Model
Causal Models for Populations
A Comparative Model for Causation in Populations
What if the Individuals are Probabilistic?
Effectiveness of Causal Factors
Effectiveness in Individuals
Effectiveness in Populations
Summary: How Causation Differs from Correlation
Evaluating Causal Hypotheses
Saccharin and Cancer
Randomized Experimental Designs
Real-World Population and Causal Hypothesis
Sample Data
Experimental Design
Random Sampling
Evaluating the Causal Hypothesis
Program for Evaluating Causal Hypotheses
Of Rats and Humans
Double-Blind Studies
Schizophrenia and Heredity
Combined Results from Five Recent Twin Studies
Prospective Designs
Controlling for Other Variables
Prospective versus Randomized Experimental Designs
Schizophrenia Etiology and the Dystrobrevin-Binding Protein 1 (DTNBP1) Gene
Retrospective Designs
Nonrandom Selection of the Experimental Group
Constructing the Control Group
Controlling for Other Variables
Retrospective Studies and Survey Sampling
Effectiveness and Retrospective Studies
Evaluating Retrospective Studies
Statistical Evidence for Causal Hypotheses
Can Prospective Studies Prove a Causal Connection?
The Ethics of Experimental Design
New Trends in Biomedical Research
Knowledge, Values, and Decisions
Models of Decision Making
States of The World
Ranking Values
Measuring Values
Scientific Knowledge and Decision Strategies
Decision Making with Certainty
Highest Value Strategy
Decision Making with Complete Uncertainty
Better and Worse Options
Best Options
Satisfactory Options
Playing It Safe
Gambling versus Playing It Safe
Decision Making with Risk
Expected Value
Is the Expected-Value Strategy the Best Strategy?
Modern Utility Theory
Ramsey's Insight
A Fictional Case
Maximizing Expected Utility
Von Neumann-Morgenstern Utility Theory
Another Fictional Case
Summary of Decision Strategies
Evaluating Decisions
A Program for Evaluating Decisions
Decisions Involving Low Probabilities
Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer
Decisions Involving Moderate Probabilities
The Smoking Decision
Further Considerations
Confronting Your Values
Policy Decisions with Uncertainty
Global Warming
Whose Decision is It, Anyway?
Free shipping on orders over $35*

*A minimum purchase of $35 is required. Shipping is provided via FedEx SmartPost® and FedEx Express Saver®. Average delivery time is 1 – 5 business days, but is not guaranteed in that timeframe. Also allow 1 - 2 days for processing. Free shipping is eligible only in the continental United States and excludes Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico. FedEx service marks used by permission."Marketplace" orders are not eligible for free or discounted shipping.

Learn more about the TextbookRush Marketplace.