Mary Robinson is former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 1997-2002, and former President of Ireland, 1990-97. She now leads Realizing Rights: The Ethical Globalization Initiative. Kevin Boyle is Professor of Law and Director of the Human Rights Centre at the University of Essex. Kofi Annan of Ghana was the seventh Secretary General of the United Nations, from 1997 to 2004. Louise Arbour is current United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. She began her term in 2004.