ISBN-10: 0140449140

ISBN-13: 9780140449143

Edition: 2nd 2003 (Revised)

Authors: Plato, Desmond Lee, Desmond Lee

List price: $10.00
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This translation of Plato's 'The Republic' is based on the assumption that he intended these dialogues to sound like conversations - although conversations of a philosophical sort.
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Book details

List price: $10.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Penguin Publishing Group
Publication date: 2/25/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 5.00" wide x 7.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.330
Language: English

Plato was born c. 427 B.C. in Athens, Greece, to an aristocratic family very much involved in political government. Pericles, famous ruler of Athens during its golden age, was Plato's step-father. Plato was well educated and studied under Socrates, with whom he developed a close friendship. When Socrates was publically executed in 399 B.C., Plato finally distanced himself from a career in Athenian politics, instead becoming one of the greatest philosophers of Western civilization. Plato extended Socrates's inquiries to his students, one of the most famous being Aristotle. Plato's The Republic is an enduring work, discussing justice, the importance of education, and the qualities needed for rulers to succeed. Plato felt governors must be philosophers so they may govern wisely and effectively. Plato founded the Academy, an educational institution dedicated to pursuing philosophic truth. The Academy lasted well into the 6th century A.D., and is the model for all western universities. Its formation is along the lines Plato laid out in The Republic. Many of Plato's essays and writings survive to this day. Plato died in 347 B.C. at the age of 80.

Platonbsp;(c. 427ndash;347 b.c.) founded the Academy in Athens, the prototype of all Western universities, and wrote more than twenty philosophical dialogues.

Preface and background to the Republic
Principal Dates
Current Opinions of Justice Refuted (Book 1)
Introductory Dialogue (Socrates and Cephalus, 328c-331d)
First Definition (Cephalus, 331a-d)
Refutation (332c-335d)
Third Definition (Thrasymachus, 338c-343a)
Refutation (339b-e)
Redefinition of Ruler (340d-341a)
Refutation (341c-343a)
New Argument (343a-348a)
Refutations of (a): i) 345b-348a)
Refutation of (b), 352d-354a
Conclusion (354a-c)
Justice Reexamined, in the State and in the Individual (Books 2-4)
Adeimantus (362d-367e)
The Problem Examined and Solved (368c-445e)
Second State of the State (372d-427c)
Elementary Education of the guardians (376c-415d)
Gymnastics (physical education), 403c-412b
Instilling and testing patriotism and leadership, 412c-415d
Living arrangements of guardians and auxiliaries (415d-427c)
Conclusion (427c-434d)
Wisdom = the knowledge of the guardians (428a-429a)
Courage = the auxiliaries’ opinion of “what is and is not to be feared” (429a-30c)
Temperance = agreement of all three classes about who should rule and be ruled (430d-432b)
Justice = each of the three classes “tending its own business” and not preempting the work of another (432b-434d)
Composition of the Soul (434d-441c)
Conclusion (441d-444e)
Degeneration Regimes and Souls, Interrupted (445b-449a)
Digression: The Best Regime and Men (Books 5-7)
Organization of the Best Regime (451c-461e)
Women and children will not be private possessions but common to all of the men. Marriage arrangements, eugenics (457c-461e)
The Superiority and Possibility of Such a City (462a-473e)
Excursus: regulations for warfare (466e-471c)
Such a city is not impossible (471e-473c)
Reminder that the best state is only a model, not completely realizable in practice (472b-473b). It is possible only if philosophers become kings or kings philosophers (473c-3),
The Best Men: Philosopher Kings (Guardians), Book 5, 474b-Book 7
The Philosophic Nature (485a-503e)
Higher Education of the Guardians (504a-535a)
The Simple of the Sun (506e-509b)
The Simile of the Divided Line (509d-511e)
The Simile of the Cave (514a-521b)
Curriculum (521c-535a)
Plane geometry, 526c-527c
Harmonics, 530d-531c
Selection of the Guardians (535a-540c)
Brief Excursus (540d-541b)
Degenerate Regimes and Souls, Resumed From Book 5 (Books 8 and 9)
Cause of Change or Decline in a State: Civil War (545c-547c)
Degenerate Regimes and Men, Described and Compared (547c-592b)
Oilgarchy (rule of the wealthy few) and the oligarchic man (550c-555b)
Democracy (rule of the people) and the democratic man (555b-562a)
Tyranny (dictatorship) and the tyrannical man (562a-580a)
The five types are judged for their goodness and happiness and ranked in the order in which they were presented: Aristocracy and the aristocratic man are the best and happiness; tyranny and the tyrant are the worst and most miserable (580a-588a)
Conclusion: The aristocrat is just, the tyrant unjust. Therefore justice makes a man happy, injustice makes him unhappy (588b-592b)
Denunciation of Imitative Poetry (Book 10, 595a-608b)
Imitative poetry appeals to the emotions rather than to the mind (602c-605c)
Imitative poetry deforms character (605c-608b)
Immortality and the Rewards of Justice (608b-End)
Rewards of Justice and Punishments of Injustice in This Life (612b-614a)
Rewards and Punishments After Death (614a-621d)
Appendix: The Spindle of Necessity
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