How to Write and Use Instructional Objectives

ISBN-10: 0138865337

ISBN-13: 9780138865337

Edition: 6th 2000

Authors: Norman Edward Gronlund

List price: $23.00
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For courses in Test and Measurement. This leading text is a concise and practical resource to writing and using objectives. Expanded coverage in key areas, along with thorough updates, makes it the essential how-to-do-it text regarding instructional objectives. It describes and illustrates how to state instructional objectives in performance terms that clearly define desired learning outcomes (intellectual, affective, and performance skills) and expected student performance. Furthermore, it demonstrates how to use them in planning, teaching, learning, and assessment.
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Book details

List price: $23.00
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/11/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 126
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.50" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.550
Language: English

How To Write Instructional Objectives
Writing Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes
What Are Instructional Objectives?
Why Use Instructional Objectives?
Role of Objectives in Teaching
Role of Objectives in Student Learning
Role of Objectives in Assessment
Role of Objectives in Communicating Instructional Intent to Others
Role of Objectives in Evaluating Instruction
Focusing on Intended Learning Outcomes
Learning Outcomes and the Instructional Process
Stating Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes
What About Conditions and Standards?
Obtaining Clear Statements of Instructional Objectives
Stating the General Instructional Objectives
Selecting the Proper Level of Generality
Stating the Specific Learning Outcomes
Obtaining a Representative Sample of Specific Learning Outcomes
Emphasizing Instructional Intent
Keeping the Specific Learning Outcomes Useful for Various Units of Study
Making Sure the Specific Learning Outcomes Are Relevant
Revising the General Objectives as Needed
Getting Started in Preparing Instructional Objectives
Obtaining the Proper Orientation
Using a Frame of Reference as a Guide
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Alternative Frames of Reference
Cautions in Using Any Framework as a Guide
Other Guides in Preparing Instructional Objectives
Curriculum Guides
Books and Special Reports
Test Manuals
Considerations in Selecting Instructional Objectives
Do the Objectives Indieate Learning Outcomes That Are Appropriate to the Instructional Area?
Do the Objectives Represent All Logical Learning Outcomes of the Instructional Area?
Are the Objectives Attainable by These Particular Students?
Are the Objectives in Harmony with the Philosophy of the School in Which the Instruction Is to Be Given?
Are the Objectives in Harmony with Basie Principles of Learning?
Preparing Instructional Objectives Cooperatively
Writing Instructional Objectives For Various Outcomes
Writing Objectives for Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Outcomes
Stating Objectives at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Levels
Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction
Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction
The Problem of Limiting Objectives to Intellectual Outcomes
Writing Objectives for Higher-Level Thinking Skills
Making a Useful List of Outcomes
Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction
Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction
Affective Components of Thinking
Writing Objectives for Affective Outcomes
Basing Statements on the Taxonomy Categories
Basing Statements on Traditional Categories
Adapting Statements to Areas and Levels of Instruction
Writing Performance Objectives for Skills and Products
Writing Objectives for Procedure Outcomes
Writing Objectives for Product Outcomes
Focusing on Both Procedure and Product Outcomes
Isolating Performance Skills When Writing Objectives
Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives for Skills and Products
Writing Performance Objectives for Problem-Solving Projects
Stating Objectives for Restricted Problem-Solving Projects
Stating Objectives for Extended Problem-Solving Projects
Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives in Problem-Solving Projects
Using Instructional Objectives
Using Objectives in Teaching
Instructional Objectives at the Minimum-Essentials Level
Instructional Objectives at the Developmental Level
Using Objectives in Instructional Planning
Using Objectives to Motivate and Direct Students
Using Objectives in Guiding Student Learning
Using Objectives in Achievement Testing
Preparing the List of Instructional Objectives
Outlining the Content
Preparing the Table of Specifications
Constructing Relevant Test Items
Preparing a File of Test Items
Using Detailed Specifications for Item Writing
Using Objectives in Performance and Affective Assessment
Assessing Performance Skills
Rating Scales
Scoring Rubrics
Assessing Affective Outcomes
Using Student Portfolios
Guidelines for Preparing and Using Assessment Instruments
Checklist for Evaluating the Final List of Objectives
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Illustrative Verbs
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