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Atmosphere An Introduction to Meteorology

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ISBN-10: 0137429746

ISBN-13: 9780137429745

Edition: 7th 1998

Authors: Frederick K. Lutgens, Edward J. Tarbuck

List price: $72.00
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This text contains strong, updated examples of environmental issues, such as ozone depletion, global warming, acid rain, and air pollution, allows instructors to show relevance of the subject matter to students.
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Book details

List price: $72.00
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 1998
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/23/1997
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 434
Size: 8.19" wide x 10.24" long x 0.79" tall
Weight: 2.266
Language: English

Introduction to the Atmosphere
Weather and Climate
Atmospheric Hazards: Assault by the Elements
The Atmosphere: A Part of the Earth System
Earth's Four Spheres
Earth's Spheres Interact
The Carbon Cycle
Composition of the Atmosphere
Major Components
Carbon Dioxide
Variable Components
Ozone Depletion--A Global Issue
The Ozone Hole
Effects of Ozone Depletion
Montreal Protocol
Probing the Atmosphere
Height and Structure of the Atmosphere
Pressure Changes
Temperature Changes
Vertical Variations in Composition
The Ionosphere
Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere
Earth-Sun Relationships
Earth's Motions
The Seasons
Earth's Orientation
Solstices and Equinoxes
Energy, Heat, and Temperature
Types of Energy
Heat Energy Versus Temperature
Mechanisms of Energy Transfer
Laws of Radiation
The Fate of Incoming Solar Radiation
Reflection and Scattering
Absorption by Earth's Surface and Atmosphere
Radiation Emitted by Earth
Heating the Atmosphere
The "Greenhouse Effect"
Role of Clouds in Heating Earth
Heat Budget
Latitudinal Heat Balance
For the Record: Air Temperature Data
Why Temperatures Vary: The Controls of Temperature
Land and Water
Ocean Currents
Geographic Position
Cloud Cover and Albedo
World Distribution of Temperatures
Cycles of Air Temperature
Daily Temperature Variations
Magnitude of Daily Temperature Changes
Annual Temperature Variations
Temperature Measurement
Mechanical Thermometers
Electrical Thermometers
Instrument Shelters
Temperature Scales
Applications of Temperature Data
Heating Degree-Days
Cooling Degree-Days
Growing Degree-Days
Temperature and Comfort
Moisture and Atmospheric Stability
Movement of Water Through the Atmosphere
Water's Changes of State
Water in the Atmosphere
Vapor Pressure and Saturation
Relative Humidity
How Relative Humidity Changes
Natural Change in Relative Humidity
Dew Point Temperature
Humidity Measurement
Adiabatic Temperature Changes
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation
Lifting Processes
Orographic Lifting
Frontal Wedging
Localized Convective Lifting
The Critical Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
Types of Stability
Stability and Daily Weather
How Stability Changes
Temperature Changes and Stability
Vertical Air Movement and Stability
Forms of Condensation and Precipitation
Condensation Aloft and Cloud Formation
Cloud Classification
Cloud Descriptions
Fogs Formed by Cooling
Fogs Formed by Evaporation
Dew and Frost
How Precipitation Forms
Precipitation from Cold Clouds: The Bergeron Process
Precipitation from Warm Clouds: The Collision-Coalescence Process
Forms of Precipitation
Sleet and Glaze
Precipitation Measurement
Standard Instruments
Measuring Snowfall
Measurement Errors
Precipitation Measurement by Weather Radar
Intentional Weather Modification
Cloud Seeding
Fog and Cloud Dispersal
Hail Suppression
Frost Prevention
Inadvertent Weather Modification: Urban-Induced Precipitation
Air Pressure and Winds
Understanding Air Pressure
Measuring Air Pressure
Factors Affecting Air Pressure
Pressure Changes With Altitude
Factors Affecting Wind
Pressure-Gradient Force
Coriolis Force
Winds Aloft and Geostrophic Flow
Curved Flow and the Gradient Wind
Surface Winds
How Winds Generate Vertical Air Motion
Vertical Airflow Associated with Cyclones and Anticyclones
Factors That Promote Vertical Airflow
Wind Measurement
Circulation of the Atmosphere
Scales of Atmospheric Motion
Large- and Small-Scale Circulation
Structure of Wind Patterns
Local Winds
Land and Sea Breezes
Mountain and Valley Breezes
Chinook (Foehn) Winds
Katabatic (Fall) Winds
Country Breeze
Global Circulation
Single-Cell Circulation Model
Three-Cell Circulation Model
Observed Distribution of Pressure and Winds
Idealized Zonal Pressure Belts
Semipermanent Pressure Systems: The Real World
The Asian Monsoon
The North American Monsoon
The Westerlies
Why Westerlies?
Jet Streams
Origin of the Midlatitude Jet Stream
Subtropical Jet Stream
Waves in the Westerlies
Westerlies and Earth's Heat Budget
Global Winds and Ocean Currents
The Importance of Ocean Currents
Ocean Currents and Upwelling
El Nino and La Nina
Global Distribution of Precipitation
Zonal Distribution of Precipitation
Distribution of Precipitation Over the Continents
Precipitation Regimes on a Hypothetical Continent
Air Masses
What Is an Air Mass?
Source Regions
Classifying Air Masses
Air-Mass Modification
Properties of North American Air Masses
Continental Polar (cP) and Continental Aretic (cA) Air Masses
Lake-Effect Snow: Cold Air Over Warm Water
Maritime Polar (mP) Air Masses
Maritime Tropical (mT) Air Masses
Continental Tropical (cT) Air Masses
Weather Patterns
Polar-Front Theory
Warm Fronts
Cold Fronts
Stationary Fronts
Occluded Fronts
Life Cycle of a Midlatitude Cyclone
Formation: The Clash of Two Air Masses
Development of Cyclonic Flow
Occlusion: The Beginning of the End
Idealized Weather of a Midlatitude Cyclone
Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Circulation
Divergence and Convergence Aloft
Traveling Cyclones
Patterns of Movement
Anticyclonic Weather and Blocking Highs
Case Study of a Midlatitude Cyclone
Violent Spring Weather
Weather in Peoria
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
What's in a Name?
Air-Mass Thunderstorms
Stages of Development
Severe Thunderstorms
Supercell Thunderstorms
Squall Lines and Mesoscale Convective Complexes
Lightning and Thunder
What Causes Lightning?
The Lightning Stroke
The Development and Occurrence of Tornadoes
Tornado Development
Tornado Climatology
Profile of a Tornado
Tornado Destruction
Tornado Forecasting
Tornado Watches and Warnings
Doppler Radar
Profile of a Hurricane
Hurricane Formation and Decay
Hurricane Formation
Hurricane Decay
Hurricane Destruction
Storm Surge
Wind Damage
Inland Flooding
Detecting and Tracking Hurricanes
The Role of Satellites
Aircraft Reconnaissance
Radar and Data Buoys
Hurricane Watches and Warnings
Weather Analysis and Forecasting
The Weather Business: A Brief Overview
Weather Analysis
Gathering Data
Weather Maps: Pictures of the Atmosphere
Weather Forecasting
Synoptic Weather Forecasting
Numerical Weather Prediction
Statistical Methods
Techniques Used in Short-Range Forecasting
Long-Range Forecasts
Forecast Accuracy
Tools in Weather Forecasting
Satellites in Weather Forecasting
What Weather Satellites Reveal
Measurement by Satellite
Weather Forecasting and Upper-Level Flow
The Winter of 1977
Air Pollution
A Brief Historical Perspective
Air Pollution: Not a New Problem
Some Historic Episodes
Sources and Types of Air Pollution
Primary Pollutants
Secondary Pollutants
Trends in Air Quality
Meteorological Factors Affecting Air Pollution
Wind as a Factor
The Role of Atmospheric Stability
Acid Precipitation
Extent and Potency of Acid Precipitation
Effects of Acid Precipitation
The Changing Climate
The Climate System
Is Our Climate Changing?
How Do We Detect Climate Change?
Evidence from Sea-Floor Sediment
Evidence from Oxygen Isotope Analysis
Evidence from Other Sources
Natural Causes of Climate Change
Plate Tectonics and Climate Change
Volcanic Activity and Climate Change
Orbital Variations
Solar Variability and Climate
Human Impact on Global Climate
Carbon Dioxide, Trace Gases, and Climate Change
How Do Aerosols Influence Climate?
Climate-Feedback Mechanisms
Some Possible Consequences of a Greenhouse Warming
Water Resources and Agriculture
Sea-Level Rise
New Weather Patterns
World Climates
Climate Classification
Climate Controls: A Summary
Land and Water
Geographic Position and Prevailing Winds
Mountains and Highlands
Ocean Currents
Pressure and Wind Systems
World Climates--An Overview
The Wet Tropics (Af, Am)
Temperature Characteristics
Precipitation Characteristics
Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw)
Temperature Characteristics
Precipitation Characteristics
The Monsoon
The Cw Variant
The Dry Climates (B)
What Is Meant by "Dry"?
Subtropical Desert (BWh) and Steppe (BSh)
West Coast Subtropical Deserts
Middle-Latitude Desert (BWk) and Steppe (BSk)
Humid Middle-Latitude Climates with Mild Winters (C)
Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa)
The Marine West Coast Climate (Cfb)
The Dry-Summer Subtropical (Mediterranean) Climate (Csa, Csb)
Humid Continental Climates with Severe Winters (D)
Humid Continental Climate (Dfa)
The Subarctic Climate (Dfc, Dfd)
The Polar Climates (E)
The Tundra Climate (ET)
The Ice Cap Climate (EF)
Highland Climates
Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere
Nature of Light
Halos, Sun Dogs, and Solar Pillars
The Glory
The Corona
Metric Units
Explanation ad Decoding of the Daily Weather Map
Relative Humidity and Dew Point Tables
Correcting Mercurial Barometer Readings
Laws Relating to Gases
Climate Data