Policy Studies for Educational Leaders An Introduction

ISBN-10: 013267811X

ISBN-13: 9780132678117

Edition: 4th 2013 (Revised)

Authors: Frances C. Fowler

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In this Fourth Edition of renowned authority Frances Fowler's Policy Studies for Educational Leaders, future educational leaders and actual K-12 administrators get a solid, comprehensive grounding in education policy and the policy process and the important political theories upon which it is based. Included is essential background information about the cultural, economic, demographic, and institutional roots of educational policy and an incisive look at the history of educational policy.
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Book details

Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/14/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 384
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

The Background of Education Policy
Policy: What it is and Where it Comes From
Why Study Policy?
School Leaders in Oz
Defining Policy
A Brief Definition
Policy and Expressed Government Intentions-Racial Segregation
Policy, Law, and Racial Segregation
The Transformation of the Education Policy Environment
The Way it Used to Be
The New Policy Environment
Reasons for these Changes
Changed Roles of School Leaders
The Policy Process
Policy Issues
Applying the Stage Model to Standards-Based Reform
The School Leader and Policy Studies
Administrators as Policymakers
Administrators as Implementers of Policy
Administrators as Followers of Policy Issues
Administrators as Influencers of Policy
Final Points
Power and Education Policy
Introductory Comments
Defining Power
A "Contested" Concept
A Working Definition of Power
Discourse and Power
School Administration as Talk
Social Events
Social Practice
The Three-Dimensional Model of Power
The First Dimension of Power: Explicit Usescof Power
The Second Dimension of Power: The Mobilization of Bias
The Third Dimension of Power: The Shaping of Consciousness
Power in Educational Settings
The Power of Education Policy Actors
Building Power
Power and Distributed Leadership
Ethical Issues Surrounding Power
The Dangers of Power
Power as Means and End
Using Discursive Power Ethically
Final Points
The Economy and Demographics
Why Analyze the Policy Environment?
Defining Policy Environment
Policy and Its Social Context
The Economic Environment
The Importance of the Economy
An Overview of U.S. Economic History
Short-Term Economic Changes
Long-Term Economic Trends
Demographics and the Policy Environment
The Importance of Demographics
Long-Term Demographic Trends
Implications for Education Policy
Implications of the Business Cycle
Implications of Long-Range Trends
"Do More with Less"
"Do a Lot More with a Little More"
"Do a Lot More with a Lot Less"
Reading Between the Lines
Final Points
The Political System and Political Culture
The Importance of the Less Obvious
The U.S. Political System
Separation of Powers
Fragmentation of Governance
Focus on Elections
Judicial Review
Implications of the Political System for School Leaders
Competition Among Governance Bodies
Multiple Veto Points
Timing Policy Concerns with Elections
Network and Coalition Building
Political Culture
Defining Political Culture
Traditionalistic Political Culture
Moralistic Political Culture
Individualistic Political Culture
Political Culture and Education Policy
Implications for School Administrators
Final Points
Values and Ideology
The Importance of Ideas
Basic Values in U.S. Politics
Self-Interest and Other Values
Self-Interest Values
General Social Values
Democratic Values
Economic Values
Values Interacting with Each Other
Cyclical Shifts in Dominant Values
Important Value Conflicts
Defining Ideology
Major U.S. Ideologies
Other Ideologies
Extremist Ideologies in the United States
Ideologies in Other Countries
School Leaders Caught in Ideological Crossfire
Schools as Contested Terrain
Dealing Effectively with Ideological Conflicts
Final Points
Policy Actors and the Policy Process
The Major Education Policy Actors
The Dramatis Personae of the Policy Drama
Government Actors
The Legislative Branch
The Executive Branch
The Judicial Branch
Local Government Actors
Nongovernmental Policy Actors
Interest Groups: What they are and What they Do
Education Interest Groups
Noneducation Interest Groups
Policy Networks
Policy Planning Organizations
The Media
Identifying and Learning about Policy Actors
Overall Approach
Locating Elected Government Officials
Identifying Appointed Officials and Groups
Identifying Policy Planning and Related Organizations
Locating the "Neglected Stepchild"
Setting the Stage and Getting on It: Issue Definition and Agenda Setting
Perception and Reality in the Policy Process
Issue Definition: Setting the Stage
Defining Issue Definition
The Education Policy Planning and Research Community
The Policy Agenda
Defining Policy Agenda
Types of Policy Agendas
How Agendas Relate to Each Other
Getting on the Governmental Policy Agenda
Staying on a Policy Agenda
School Leaders and the Early Stages of the Policy Process
Following the Early Stages
Influencing the Early Stages
Final Points
Getting the Words and the Money: Policy Formulation and Policy Adoption
The High-Visibility Stages of the Policy Process
Policy Formulation and Adoption in Legislatures
A Conservative Process
Legislative Proposals and Where They Come From
How Bills are Drafted
How Bills Move Through a Legislature
The Politics of Getting a Policy Adopted
Obtaining Funding
Policy Formulation and Adoption in Administrative
Rule Making
Rule Making in the States
Policy Formulation and Adoption in the Courts
Judges as Policy Actors
Taking Cases to Court
How Judges Formulate and Adopt Policy
Examples of Education Policymaking by Judges
Influencing Policy Formulation and Adoption
General Principles
Influencing Legislatures and Agencies
Working Through Professional Organizations
Final Points
Looking at Policies: Policy Instruments and Cost Effectiveness
Learning to Analyze Public Policies
Lowi's Techniques of Control
Distributive Policies
Regulatory Policies
Redistributive Policies
Do Lowi's Categories Overlap?
Using Lowi's Categories in School Leadership
Exercises on the Techniques of Control
McDonnell and Elmore's Policy Instruments
Capacity Building
System Change
Hortatory Policy, or Persuasion
The Use of Policy Instruments in the States
Using McDonnell and Elmore's Ideas in School Leadership
Exercises on the Policy Instruments
Cost Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Thinking About Costs
Cost Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Final Points
Policy Implementation: Getting People to Carry Out a Policy
The Surprising Difficulty of Implementation
The Research on Implementation
Defining Implementation
A Rapidly Growing Field
First-Generation Research-The Difficulty of Implementation
Second-Generation Research-Analyses of Failure and Success
Third-Generation Research-Implementing Complex Policies
Implementers as Learners
Scaling Up
How to Implement a New Policy
Mobilizing for Implementation
Implementation Proper
Stages of Implementation
Implementing Unpopular Policies
Why Some Policies Are Unpopular
Issues Surrounding Resistance
Final Points
Policy Evaluation: Determining if the Policy Works
A Nervous-Making Topic
Definitions Associated with Policy Evaluation
A Brief History of Educational Policy Evaluation
Early Evaluation
The War on Poverty
The Professionalization of Evaluation
Characteristics of Policy Evaluations
The Evaluation Process
Criteria for Judging Evaluations
Evaluation Accountability
Purposes of Evaluations
Methodologies Used in Policy Evaluation
Facilitating Meaningful Policy Evaluations
The Politics of Evaluation
Suggestions for Achieving a Sound Evaluation
Acting on an Evaluation Report
Minor Modifications
Major Modifications
Final Points
Education Policy in the United States: Retrospective and Prospective
If We Aren't in Kansas, Where are We?
Four Theoretical Frameworks
Competing Values
Lowi's Policy Types
Institutional Choice
International Convergence
Retrospective on U.S. Education Policy
The Young Republic, 1783-1830
The Rise of the Common School, 1831-1900
The "Scientific" Sorting Machine, 1900-1982
In Search of a New Paradigm, 1983-Present
Is No Child Left Behind the New Paradigm?
The Passage of NCLB
Major Provisions of NCLB
Applying Four Theoretical Lenses to NCLB
Will NCLB Be Repealed?
What, Then, Should Education Leaders Do?
Final Points
Name Index
Subject Index
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