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Introduction | |

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Definition of Surveying | |

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Geomatics | |

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History of Surveying | |

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Geodetic and Plane Surveys | |

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Importance of Surveying | |

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Specialized Types of Surveys | |

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Surveying Safety | |

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Land and Geographic Information Systems | |

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Federal Surveying and Mapping Agencies | |

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The Surveying Profession | |

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Professional Surveying Organizations | |

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Surveying on the Internet | |

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Future Challenges in Surveying | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Units, Significant Figures, and Field Notes | |

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Units and Significant Figures | |

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Introduction | |

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Units of Measurement | |

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International System of Units (SI) | |

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Significant Figures | |

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Rounding Off Numbers | |

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Field Notes | |

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Field Notes | |

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General Requirements of Handwritten Field Notes | |

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Types of Field Books | |

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Kinds of Notes | |

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Arrangements of Notes | |

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Suggestions for Recording Notes | |

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Introduction to Data Collectors | |

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Transfer of Files from Data Collectors | |

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Digital Data File Management | |

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Data Collectors | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Theory of Errors in Observations | |

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Introduction | |

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Direct and Indirect Observations | |

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Errors in Measurements | |

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Mistakes | |

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Sources of Errors in Making Observations | |

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Types of Errors | |

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Precision and Accuracy | |

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Eliminating Mistakes and Systematic Errors | |

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Probability | |

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Most Probable Value | |

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Residuals | |

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Occurrence of Random Errors | |

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General Laws of Probability | |

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Measures of Precision | |

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Interpretation of Standard Deviation | |

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The 50, 90, and 95 Percent Errors | |

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Error Propagation | |

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Applications | |

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Conditional Adjustment of Observations | |

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Weights of Observations | |

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Least-Squares Adjustment | |

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Using Software | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Levelingï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Theory, Methods, and Equipment | |

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Levelingï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Theory and Methods | |

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Introduction | |

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Definitions | |

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North American Vertical Datum | |

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Curvature and Refraction | |

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Methods for Determining Differences in Elevation | |

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Equipment for Differential Leveling | |

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Categories of Levels | |

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Telescopes | |

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Level Vials | |

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Tilting Levels | |

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Automatic Levels | |

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Digital Levels | |

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Tripods | |

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Hand Level | |

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Level Rods | |

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Testing and Adjusting Levels | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Levelingï¿½ï¿½ï¿½Field Procedures and Computations | |

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Introduction | |

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Carrying and Setting Up a Level | |

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Duties of a Rodperson | |

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Differential Leveling | |

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Precision | |

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Adjustments of Simple Level Circuits | |

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Reciprocal Leveling | |

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Three-Wire Leveling | |

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Profile Leveling | |

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Grid, Cross-Section, or Borrow-Pit Leveling | |

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Use of the Hand Level | |

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Sources of Error in Leveling | |

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Mistakes | |

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Reducing Errors and Eliminating Mistakes | |

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Using Software | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Distance Measurement | |

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Methods for Measuring Distances | |

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Introduction | |

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Summary of Methods for Making Linear Measurements | |

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Pacing | |

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Odometer Readings | |

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Optical Rangefinders | |

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Tacheometry | |

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Subtense Bar | |

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Distance Measurements by Taping | |

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Introduction to Taping | |

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Taping Equipment and Accessories | |

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Care of Taping Equipment | |

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Taping on Level Ground | |

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Horizontal Measurements on Sloping Ground | |

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Slope Measurements | |

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Sources of Error in Taping | |

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Tape Problems | |

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Combined Corrections in a Taping Problem | |

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Electronic Distance Measurement | |

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Introduction | |

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Propagation of Electromagnetic Energy | |

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Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement | |

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Electro-Optical Instruments | |

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Total Station Instruments | |

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EDM Instruments Without Reflectors | |

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Computing Horizontal Lengths from Slope Distances | |

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Errors in Electronic Distance Measurement | |

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Using Software | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Angles, Azimuths, and Bearings | |

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Introduction | |

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Units of Angle Measurement | |

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Kinds of Horizontal Angles | |

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Direction of a Line | |

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Azimuths | |

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Bearings | |

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Comparison of Azimuths and Bearings | |

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Computing Azimuths | |

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Computing Bearings | |

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The Compass and the Earth's Magnetic Field | |

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Magnetic Declination | |

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Variations in Magnetic Declination | |

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Software for Determining Magnetic Declination | |

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Local Attraction | |

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Typical Magnetic Declination Problems | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Total Station Instruments; Angle Observations | |

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Total Station Instruments | |

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Introduction | |

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Characteristics of Total Station Instruments | |

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Functions Performed by Total Station Instruments | |

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Parts of a Total Station Instrument | |

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Handling and Setting Up a Total Station Instrument | |

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Servo-Driven and Remotely Operated Total Station Instruments | |

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Angle Observations | |

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Relationship of Angles and Distances | |

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Observing Horizontal Angles with Total Station Instruments | |

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Observing Horizontal Angles by the Direction Method | |

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Closing the Horizon | |

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Observing Deflection Angles | |

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Observing Azimuths | |

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Observing Vertical Angles | |

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Sights and Marks | |

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Prolonging a Straight Line | |

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Balancing-In | |

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Random Traverse | |

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Total Stations for Determining Elevation Differences | |

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Adjustment of Total Station Instruments and Their Accessories | |

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Sources of Error in Total Station Work | |

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Propagation of Random Errors in Angle Observations | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Traversing | |

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Introduction | |

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Observation of Traverse Angles or Directions | |

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Observation of Traverse Lengths | |

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Selection of Traverse Stations | |

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Referencing Traverse Stations | |

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Traverse Field Notes | |

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Angle Misclosure | |

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Traversing with Total Station Instruments | |

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Radial Traversing | |

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Sources of Error in Traversing | |

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Mistakes in Traversing | |

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Problems | |

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Traverse Computations | |

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Introduction | |

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Balancing Angles | |

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Computation of Preliminary Azimuths or Bearings | |

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DePartures and Latitudes | |

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DeParture and Latitude Closure Conditions | |

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Traverse Linear Misclosure and Relative Precision | |

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Traverse Adjustment | |

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Rectangular Coordinates | |

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Alternative Methods for Making Traverse Computations | |

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Inversing | |

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Computing Final Adjusted Traverse Lengths and Directions | |

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Coordinate Computations in Boundary Surveys | |

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Use of Open Traverses | |

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State Plane Coordinate Systems | |

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Traverse Computations Using Computers | |

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Locating Blunders in Traverse Observations | |

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Mistakes in Traverse Computations | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Coordinate Geometry in Surveying Calculations | |

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Introduction | |

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Coordinate Forms of Equations for Lines and Circles | |

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Perpendicular Distance from a Point to a Line | |

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Intersection of Two Lines, Both Having Known Directions | |

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Intersection of a Line with a Circle | |

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Intersection of Two Circles | |

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Three-Point Resection | |

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Two-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation | |

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Inaccessible Point Problem | |

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Three-Dimensional Two-Point Resection | |

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Software | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Area | |

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Introduction | |

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Methods of Measuring Area | |

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Area by Division Into Simple Figures | |

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Area by Offsets from Straight Lines | |

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Area by Coordinates | |

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Area by Double-Meridian Distance Method | |

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Area of Parcels with Circular Boundaries | |

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Partitioning of Lands | |

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Area by Measurements from Maps | |

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Software | |

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Sources of Error in Determining Areas | |

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Mistakes in Determining Areas | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Global Navigation Satellite Systems Introduction and Principles of Operation | |

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Introduction | |

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Overview of GPS | |

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The GPS Signal | |

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Reference Coordinate Systems | |

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Fundamentals of Satellite Positioning | |

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Errors in Observations | |

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Differential Positioning | |

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Kinematic Methods | |

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Relative Positioning | |

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Other Satellite Navigation Systems | |

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The Future | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Global Navigation Satellite Systems Static Surveys | |

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Introduction | |

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Field Procedures in Satellite Surveys | |

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Planning Satellite Surveys | |

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Performing Static Surveys | |

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Data Processing and Analysis | |

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Sources of Errors in Satellite Surveys | |

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Mistakes in Satellite Surveys | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Global Navigation Satellite Systems Kinematic Surveys | |

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Introduction | |

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Planning of Kinematic Surveys | |

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Initialization | |

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Equipment Used in Kinematic Surveys | |

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Methods Used in Kinematic Surveys | |

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Performing Post-Processed Kinematic Surveys | |

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Communication in Real-Time Kinematic Surveys | |

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Real-Time Networks | |

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Performing Real-Time Kinematic Surveys | |

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Machine Control | |

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Errors in Kinematic Surveys | |

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Mistakes in Kinematic Surveys | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Adjustments by Least Squares | |

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Introduction | |

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Fundamental Condition of Least Squares | |

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Least-Squares Adjustment by the Observation Equation Method | |

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Matrix Methods in Least-Squares Adjustment | |

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Matrix Equations for Precisions of Adjusted Quantities | |

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Least-Squares Adjustment of Leveling Circuits | |

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Propagation of Errors | |

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Least-Squares Adjustment of GNSS Baseline Vectors | |

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Least-Squares Adjustment of Conventional Horizontal Plane Surveys | |

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The Error Ellipse | |

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Adjustment Procedures | |

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Other Measures of Precision for Horizontal Stations | |

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Software | |

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Conclusions | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Mapping Surveys | |

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Introduction | |

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Basic Methods for Performing Mapping Surveys | |

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Map Scale | |

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Control for Mapping Surveys | |

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Contours | |

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Characteristics of Contours | |

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Direct and Indirect Methods of Locating Contours | |

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Digital Elevation Models and Automated Contouring Systems | |

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Basic Field Methods for Locating Topographic Details | |

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Three-Dimensional Conformal Coordinate Transformation | |

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Selection of Field Method | |

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Working with Data Collectors and Field-to-Finish Software | |

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Hydrographic Surveys | |

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Sources of Error in Mapping Surveys | |

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Mistakes in Mapping Surveys | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Mapping | |

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Introduction | |

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Availability of Maps and Related Information | |

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National Mapping Program | |

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Accuracy Standards for Mapping | |

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Manual and Computer-Aided Drafting Procedures | |

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Map Design | |

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Map Layout | |

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Basic Map Plotting Procedures | |

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Contour Interval | |

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Plotting Contours | |

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Lettering | |

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Cartographic Map Elements | |

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Drafting Materials | |

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Automated Mapping and Computer-Aided Drafting Systems | |

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Impacts of Modern Land and Geographic Information Systems on Mapping | |

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Sources of Error in Mapping | |

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Mistakes in Mapping | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Control Surveys and Geodetic Reductions | |

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Introduction | |

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The Ellipsoid and Geoid | |

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The Conventional Terrestrial Pole | |

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Geodetic Position and Ellipsoidal Radii of Curvature | |

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Geoid Undulation and Deflection of the Vertical | |

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U.S. Reference Frames | |

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Accuracy Standards and Specifications for Control Surveys | |

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The National Spatial Reference System | |

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Hierarchy of the National Horizontal Control Network | |

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Hierarchy of the National Vertical Control Network | |

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Control Point Descriptions | |

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Field Procedures for Traditional Horizontal Control Surveys | |

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Field Procedures for Vertical Control Surveys | |

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Reduction of Field Observations to Their Geodetic Values | |

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Geodetic Position Computations | |

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The Local Geodetic Coordinate System | |

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Three-Dimensional Coordinate Computations | |

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Software | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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State Plane Coordinates and Other Map Projections | |

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Introduction | |

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Projections Used in State Plane Coordinate Systems | |

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Lambert Conformal Conic Projection | |

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Transverse Mercator Projection | |

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State Plane Coordinates in NAD27 and NAD83 | |

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Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Lambert Conformal Conic System | |

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Computing SPCS83 Coordinates in the Transverse Mercator System | |

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Reduction of Distances and Angles to State Plane Coordinate Grids | |

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Computing State Plane Coordinates of Traverse Stations | |

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Surveys Extending from One Zone to Another | |

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Conversions Between SPCS27 and SPCS83 | |

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The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection | |

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Other Map Projections | |

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Map Projection Software | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Boundary Surveys | |

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Introduction | |

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Categories of Land Surveys | |

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Historical Perspectives | |

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Property Description by Metes and Bounds | |

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Property Description by Block-and-Lot System | |

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Property Description by Coordinates | |

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Retracement Surveys | |

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Subdivision Surveys | |

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Partitioning Land | |

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Registration of Title | |

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Adverse Possession and Easements | |

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Condominium Surveys | |

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Geographic and Land Information Systems | |

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Sources of Error in Boundary Surveys | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Surveys of the Public Lands | |

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Introduction | |

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Instructions for Surveys of the Public Lands | |

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Initial Point | |

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Principal Meridian | |

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Baseline | |

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Standard Parallels (Correction Lines) | |

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Guide Meridians | |

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Township Exteriors, Meridional (Range) Lines, and Latitudinal (Township) Lines | |

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Designation of Townships | |

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Subdivision of a Quadrangle into Townships | |

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Subdivision of a Township into Sections | |

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Subdivision of Sections | |

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Fractional Sections | |

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Notes | |

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Outline of Subdivision Steps | |

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Marking Corners | |

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Witness Corners | |

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Meander Corners | |

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Lost and Obliterated Corners | |

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Accuracy of Public Lands Surveys | |

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Descriptions by Township Section and Smaller Subdivision | |

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BLM Land Information System | |

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Sources of Error | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Construction Surveys | |

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Introduction | |

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Specialized Equipment for Construction Surveys | |

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Horizontal and Vertical Control | |

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Staking Out a Pipeline | |

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Staking Pipeline Grades | |

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Staking Out a Building | |

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Staking Out Highways | |

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Other Construction Surveys | |

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Construction Surveys Using Total Station Instruments | |

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Construction Surveys Using GNSS Equipment | |

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Machine Guidance and Control | |

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As-Built Surveys with Laser Scanning | |

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Sources of Error in Construction Surveys | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Horizontal Curves | |

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Introduction | |

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Degree of Circular Curve | |

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Definitions and Derivation of Circular Curve Formulas | |

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Circular Curve Stationing | |

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General Procedure of Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles | |

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Computing Deflection Angles and Chords | |

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Notes for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords | |

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Detailed Procedures for Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords | |

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Setups on Curve | |

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Metric Circular Curves by Deflection Angles and Incremental Chords | |

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Circular Curve Layout by Deflection Angles and Total Chords | |

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Computation of Coordinates on a Circular Curve | |

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Circular Curve Layout by Coordinates | |

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Curve Stakeout Using GNSS Receivers and Robotic Total Stations | |

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Circular Curve Layout by Offsets | |

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Special Circular Curve Problems | |

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Compound and Reverse Curves | |

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Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves | |

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Spirals | |

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Computation of "As-Built" Circular Alignments | |

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Sources of Error in Laying Out Circular Curves | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Vertical Curves | |

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Introduction | |

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General Equation of a Vertical Parabolic Curve | |

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Equation of an Equal Tangent Vertical Parabolic Curve | |

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High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve | |

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Vertical Curve Computations Using the Tangent Offset Equation | |

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Equal Tangent Property of a Parabola | |

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Curve Computations by Proportion | |

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Staking a Vertical Parabolic Curve | |

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Machine Control in Grading Operations | |

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Computations for an Unequal Tangent Vertical Curve | |

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Designing a Curve to Pass Through a Fixed Point | |

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Sight Distance | |

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Sources of Error in Laying Out Vertical Curves | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Volumes | |

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Introduction | |

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Methods of Volume Measurement | |

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The Cross-Section Method | |

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Types of Cross Sections | |

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Average-End-Area Formula | |

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Determining End Areas | |

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Computing Slope Intercepts | |

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Prismoidal Formula | |

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Volume Computations | |

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Unit-Area, or Borrow-Pit, Method | |

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Contour-Area Method | |

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Measuring Volumes of Water Discharge | |

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Software | |

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Sources of Error in Determining Volumes | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Photogrammetry | |

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Introduction | |

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Uses of Photogrammetry | |

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Aerial Cameras | |

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Types of Aerial Photographs | |

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Vertical Aerial Photographs | |

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Scale of a Vertical Photograph | |

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Ground Coordinates from a Single Vertical Photograph | |

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Relief Displacement on a Vertical Photograph | |

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Flying Height of a Vertical Photograph | |

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Stereoscopic Parallax | |

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Stereoscopic Viewing | |

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Stereoscopic Measurement of Parallax | |

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Analytical Photogrammetry | |

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Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments | |

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Orthophotos | |

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Ground Control for Photogrammetry | |

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Flight Planning | |

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Airborne Laser-Mapping Systems | |

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Remote Sensing | |

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Software | |

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Sources of Error in Photogrammetry | |

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Mistakes | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Introduction to Geographic Information Systems | |

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Introduction | |

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Land Information Systems | |

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GIS Data Sources and Classifications | |

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Spatial Data | |

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Nonspatial Data | |

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Data Format Conversions | |

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Creating GIS Databases | |

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Metadata | |

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GIS Analytical Functions | |

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GIS Applications | |

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Data Sources | |

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Problems | |

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Bibliography | |

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Dumpy Levels, Transits, And Theodolites | |

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Example Noteforms | |

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Astronomical Observations | |

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Using the Worksheets From the Companion Website | |

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Introduction to Matrices | |

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U.S. State Plane Coordinate System Defining Parameters | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Index | |