Cognitive Psychology Mind and Brain

ISBN-10: 0131825089

ISBN-13: 9780131825086

Edition: 2007

Authors: Edward E. Smith, Stephen M. Kosslyn

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This book is the first to incorporate neuroscience seamlessly into the study of cognitive psychology. The study of cognition has progressed enormously over the past decade, but no currently available book summarizes and makes accessible the key findings and theories. This book takes a fresh look at the field, and presents it as it actually is today. By integrating findings about the brain into the usual fare for this topic, it provides the foundation for readers to study current research in the field.How the Brain Gives Rise to the Mind; Perception; Attention; Representation and Knowledge in Long-Term Memory; Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory; Working Memory; Executive Processes; Emotion and Cognition; Decision Making; Problem Solving and Reasoning; Planning and Motor Cognition; and Language.For those practicing in the field of cognitive psychology.
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Book details

List price: $242.40
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/16/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 608
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.244
Language: English

How the Brain Gives Rise to the Mind
A Brief History: How We Got Here
In the Beginning: The Contents of Consciousness
Psychology in the World
Behaviorism: Reaction against the Unobservable
The Cognitive Revolution
Understanding the Mind: The Form of Theories of Cognition
Mind and Brain
Mental Representation
Mental Processing
Why the Brain?
Debate: What Is the Nature of Visual Mental Imagery?
The Cognitive Brain
Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Brain
Structure of the Nervous System
Studying Cognition
Converging Evidence for Dissociations and Associations
Behavioral Methods
Correlational Neural Methods: The Importance of Localization
Causal Neural Methods
Neural-Network Models
Overview of the Book
Revisit and Reflect
What It Means to Perceive
How It Works: The Case of Visual Perception
The Structure of the Visual System
Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing
Learning to See
Building from the Bottom Up: From Features to Objects
Processing Features, the Building Blocks of Perception
Putting It Together: What Counts, What Doesn't
Achieving Visual Recognition: Have I Seen You Before?
A Brain That Cannot Recognize
Models of Recognition
A Closer Look: Visual Feature Detectors in the Brain
Debate: A Set of Blocks or Cat's Cradle: Modular or Distributed Representations?
Interpreting from the Top Down: What You Know Guides What You See
Using Context
Models of Top-Down Processing
In Models and Brains: The Interactive Nature of Perception
Refining Recognition
Resolving Ambiguity
Seeing the "What" and the "Where"
Revisit and Reflect
The Nature and Roles of Attention
Failures of Selection
Debate: Cars and Conversation
Successes of Selection
Explaining Attention: Information-Processing Theories
Early versus Late Attentional Selection
Spotlight Theory
Feature Integration Theory and Guided Search
Looking to the Brain
Electrophysiology and Human Attention
Functional Neuroimaging and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Competition: A Single Explanatory Framework for Attention?
A Closer Look: Competition and Selection
Revisit and Reflect
Representation and Knowledge in Long-Term Memory
Roles of Knowledge in Cognition
Representations and Their Formats
Memories and Representations
Four Possible Formats for Representations
A Closer Look: Behavioral Evidence for Mental Imagery
Debate: Do Amodal Representations Exist?
Multiple Representational Formats in Perception and Simulation
From Representation to Category Knowledge
The Inferential Power of Category Knowledge
The Multimodal Nature of Category Knowledge
Multimodal Mechanisms and Category Knowledge: Behavioral Evidence
Multimodal Mechanisms and Category Knowledge: Neural Evidence
Structures in Cateogry Knowledge
Exemplars and Rules
Prototypes and Typicality
Background Knowledge
Dynamic Representation
Category Domains and Organization
Distinguishing Domains of Category Knowledge in the Brain
Taxonomies and the Search for a "Basic Level"
Revisit and Reflect
Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory
The Nature of Long-Term Memory
The Forms of Long-Term Memory
The Power of Memory: The Story of H.M.
Multiple Systems for Long-Term Learning and Remembering
Encoding: How Episodic Memories Are Formed
The Importance of Attention
Levels of Processing and Elaborative Encoding
A Closer Look: Transfer Appropriate Processing
Enhancers of Encoding: Generation and Spacing
Episodic Encoding, Binding, and the Medial Temporal Lobe
Consolidation: The Fixing of Memory
Retrieval: How We Recall the Past from Episodic Memory
Pattern Completion and Recapitulation
Episodic Retrieval and the Frontal Lobes
Cues for Retrieval
The Second Time Around: Recognizing Stimuli by Recollection and Familiarity
Misremembering the Past
Debate: "Remembering," "Knowing," and the Medial Temporal Lobes
The Encoding Was Successful, But I Still Can't Remember
Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Function
Forgetting and Competition
Nondeclarative Memory Systems
Beyond Priming: Other Forms of Nondeclarative Memory
Revisit and Reflect
Working Memory
Using Working Memory
A Computer Metaphor
Implications of the Nature of Working Memory
From Primary Memory to Working Memory: A Brief History
William James: Primary Memory, Secondary Memory, and Consciousness
Early Studies: The Characteristics of Short-Term Memory
The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model: The Relationship of Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
The Baddeley-Hitch Model: Working Memory
Understanding the Working Memory Model
The Phonological Loop: When It Works and When It Doesn't
The Visuospatial Scratchpad
The Central Executive
Debate: How Are Working Memory Functions Organized in the Brain?
Are There Really Two Distinct Storage Systems?
How Working Memory Works
Mechanisms of Active Maintenance
The Role of the Prefrontal Cortex: Storage or Control?
A Closer Look: Mechanisms of Working Memory Storage in the Monkey Brain
Current Directions
The Episodic Buffer
Person-to-Person Variation
The Role of Dopamine
Revisit and Reflect
Executive Processes
The Frontal Lobe Connection
Frontal Damage and the Frontal Hypothesis
Executive Attention
A Neural-Network Model of Conflict in Processing
Executive Attention and Categorization
The Role of Consciousness
A Closer Look: Prefrontal Damage, Reasoning, and Category Decision
Switching Attention
The Costs of Switching
A Framework for Understanding Task Switching
The Neural-Switcher Hypothesis
What Gets Switched?
Inhibition of Response
Representative Cases of Response Inhibition
Development of Response Inhibition
Mechanisms for Sequencing
Sequencing Connected Items
Monitoring Working Memory
Monitoring for Errors
Debate: How Many Executive Processes Does It Take ...?
Revisit and Reflect
Emotion and Cognition
The Connection
Defining Emotion
Basic Emotions
Dimensional Approaches
Manipulating and Measuring Emotion
Manipulation by Mood Induction
Manipulation by Evocative Stimuli
Measuring Emotion Directly
Measuring Emotion Indirectly
Emotional Learning: Acquiring Evaluations
Classical Conditioning
Instrumental Conditioning: Learning by Reward or Punishment
Instructional and Observational Learning
A Closer Look: Expressing Imaginary Fears
Mere Exposure
Emotion and Declarative Memory
Arousal and Memory
Stress and Memory
Mood and Memory
Memory for Emotional Public Events
Emotion, Attention, and Perception
Emotion and the Capture of Attention
Facilitation of Attention and Perception
Debate: Is the Detection of Threat Automatic?
Revisit and Reflect
Decision Making
The Nature of a Decision
The Science of Decision Making
The Decision Tree
Rational Decision Making: The Expected Utility Model
How the Model Works
The Expected Utility Model and Behavioral Research
General Limitations of the Expected Utility Model
Neural Bases of Expected Utility Calculations
Human Decision Making and the Expected Utility Model: How Close a Fit?
Preference, Transitivity, and Procedural Invariance: Behavioral Violations
Rationality-Up to a Point
Debate: Are Humans Rational Animals?
Framing Effects and Prospect Theory
The Role of Emotions in Valuation: The Allais Paradox
The Role of Emotions in Valuation: Temporal Discounting and Dynamic Inconsistency
A Closer Look: Separate Systems Value Immediate versus Delayed Reward
Judgments in the Face of Ambiguity
Judgments about Likelihood in the Face of Uncertainty
Complex, Uncertain Decision Making
Revisit and Reflect
Problem Solving and Reasoning
The Nature of Problem Solving
The Structure of a Problem
Problem Space Theory
Strategies and Heuristics
The Role of Working Memory and Executive Processes
How Experts Solve Problems
Analogical Reasoning
Using Analogies
Theories of Analogical Reasoning
Beyond Working Memory
Inductive Reasoning
General Inductions
Specific Inductions
Critical Brain Networks
Deductive Reasoning
Categorical Syllogisms
Conditional Syllogisms
Errors in Deductive Thinking
Theories of Deductive Reasoning
A Closer Look: Logic and Belief
Debate: Errors and Evolution
Linguistic versus Spatial Basis
Revisit and Reflect
Motor Cognition and Mental Simulation
The Nature of Motor Cognition
Perception-Action Cycles
The Nature of Motor Processing in the Brain
The Role of Shared Representations
Mental Simulation and the Motor System
Motor Priming and Mental Representation
Motor Programs
Mental Simulation of Action
A Closer Look: Taking Perspective
The Development of Imitation
The Cognitive Components of Imitation
Simulation Theories of Action Understanding
Debate: How Do We Know Whose Plan It Is?
Mirror Neurons and Self-Other Mapping
Biological Motion
The Perception of Biological Motion
Processing Biological Motion
Motor Cognition in Motion Perception
Revisit and Reflect
The Nature of Language
Levels of Language Representation
Language versus Animal Communication
Processes of Language Comprehension
The Triangle Model of the Lexicon
Ambiguity: A Pervasive Challenge to Comprehension
Speech Perception
A Closer Look: Multiple Hypotheses during Spoken Word Recognition
Representing Meaning
Sentence Comprehension
Figurative Language
Processes of Language Production
Grammatical Encoding
Phonological Encoding
Integrating Grammatical and Phonological Stages
Language, Thought, and Bilingualism
Language and Thought
Debate: Are There Sensitive Periods for the Acquisition of Language?
Revisit and Reflect
Subject Index
Author Index
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