Educational Assessment of Students

ISBN-10: 0131719254

ISBN-13: 9780131719255

Edition: 5th 2007 (Revised)

List price: $117.33
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From two of the best known authors in the field of classroom assessment comes a revision of one of the best assessment books.nbsp; Features include hundreds of examples, directions for crafting both traditional and alternative assessments, checklists for evaluating classroom assessments, scores of strategies for assessing problem solving and critical thinking, methods for aligning classroom assessment with state standards and NCLB requirements.nbsp; Reviewers have described the book as the best on the market for its completeness and balanced approach to classroom assessment.
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Book details

List price: $117.33
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 5/5/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 576
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.772
Language: English

The Bases for Assessment in the Classroom
Classroom Decision Making and Using Assessment
About This Chapter
Example of Assessments Used for an Educational Decision
Teachers' Classroom Decisions
Distinctions Among Assessments, Tests, Measurements, and Evaluations
High-Stakes Assessment and Accountability
Assessment and Educational Decisions About Students
Acquiring the Competence to Assess Students
Describing the Goals and Learning Targets of Instruction
About This Chapter
Importance of Specifying Objectives
Educational Goals, State Standards, and Learning Targets
Taxonomies of Learning Targets
Cognitive Domain Taxonomies
Choosing a Taxonomy
Sources for Locating Learning Targets
Evaluating the Learning Targets of a Course or Unit
How to Write Specific Learning Targets
Making Sure Assessment Tasks Are Aligned With Learning Targets
Validity of Assessment Results
About This Chapter
General Nature of Validity
Four Principles for Validation
Validity of Teacher-Crafted Classroom Assessment Results
Validity of Extraclassroom Assessments
Categories of Validity Evidence
Combining Evidence for Validity Judgments: An Argument-Based Approach
Validity Issues When Accommodating Students With Disabilities
Reliability of Assessment Results
About This Chapter
General Nature of Reliability
Causes of Measurement Error or Inconsistency
Types of Reliability Coefficients
Obtained Scores, True Scores, and Error Scores
Standard Error of Measurement
Additional Factors Affecting Reliability and SEM
Reliability of Mastery and Pass-Fail Decisions
How to Improve Reliability
Professional Responsibilities, Ethical Behavior, and Legal Requirements in Educational Assessments
About This Chapter
A Teacher's Professional Responsibilities in Assessment
Students' Rights as Test Takers
Students' Responsibilities
Secrecy, Access, Privacy, Confidentiality, and the Teacher
Legally Defensible Assessment Accommodation Policies
Testing Challenged in Court
Bias in Educational Assessment
Possible Future Directions of Test Fairness
Crafting and Using Classroom Assessments
Planning for Integrating Assessment and Instruction
About This Chapter
How Making Your Own Assessments Improves Your Teaching
Are You Assessing for Formative or Summative Purposes?
Assessment Planning for a Marking Period
Assessment Planning for One Unit of Instruction
Pretesting to Plan Your Teaching
Crafting a Plan for One Summative Assessment
Blueprints for Student-Centered Assessment
Criteria for Improving the Validity of Assessment Plans
What Range of Assessment Options Is Available?
Validity of Different Classroom Assessment Options
Completion, Short-Answer, and True-False Items
About This Chapter
Three Fundamental Principles for Crafting Assessments
Short-Answer Items
True-False Items
Usefulness of True-False Items
Multiple-Choice and Matching Exercises
About This Chapter
Multiple-Choice Item Format
Considerations Before Crafting Items
Advantages and Criticisms of Multiple-Choice Items
When Not to Use Multiple-Choice Items
Crafting Basic Multiple-Choice Items
A Checklist for Evaluating Multiple-Choice Items
Crafting Alternative Varieties of Multiple-Choice Items
Greater-Less-Same Items
Best-Answer Items
Experiment-Interpretation Items
Statement-and-Comment Items
Matching Exercise Format
Advantages and Criticisms of Matching Exercises
Crafting Basic Matching Exercises
Crafting Alternative Varieties of Matching Exercises
Masterlist (Keylist) Items
Tabular (Matrix) Items
Essay Assessment Tasks
About This Chapter
Formats for Essay Items
Usefulness of Essay Assessments
Constructing Essays Assessing Subject-Matter Learning
Optional Questions
Constructing Prompts for Assessing Writing Achievement
Scoring Essay Assessments
Higher-Order Thinking, Problem Solving, and Critical Thinking
About This Chapter
Assessing Higher-Order Thinking
Context-Dependent Item Sets
Concepts and Concept Learning
Assessing Concrete Concept Learning
Assessing Concept Understanding at a Deeper Level
Assessing Defined Concept Learning
Assessing Whether Students' Thinking Uses Rules
Assessing Comprehension of Rules and Principles
Problem Solving
Assessing Problem-Solving Skills
Other Promising Approaches for Assessing Problem Solving
Critical Thinking
Assessing Dispositions Toward Critical Thinking
Assessing Critical-Thinking Abilities
Other Specific Higher-Order Skills and Abilities
Enhanced Multiple-Choice Items
Performance, Portfolio, and Authentic Assessments: An Overview
About This Chapter
What Is Performance Assessment?
Types of Performance Assessments
Authentic Assessments
Advantages and Criticisms of Performance Assessments
How Using Performance Assessment Can Improve Your Teaching
Multiple Intelligences Perspective on Performance Assessments
How to Craft Performance Tasks, Projects, Portfolios, Rating Scales, and Scoring Rubrics
About This Chapter
Stages in Crafting Performance Tasks and Rubrics
Being Clear About the Performance to Assess
Crafting Performance Tasks
Crafting Rubrics, Checklists, and Rating Scales
Types of Scoring Rubrics
Crafting Scoring Rubrics: How to Do It
Crafting Checklists
Crafting Rating Scales
Evaluating Scoring Rubrics and Rating Scales
Crafting Projects
Crafting Portfolios
Electronic Portfolios
Formative Evaluation Using Informal Diagnostic Assessments
About This Chapter
Diagnostic Assessment
Integrating Teaching, Diagnosis, and Assessment
Profiling Content Strengths and Weaknesses
Identifying Prerequisite Deficits
Identifying Objectives Not Mastered
Identifying Students' Errors
Identifying Student Knowledge Structures
Identifying Competencies for Solving Word Problems
Interviewing Students
Preparing Your Students to Be Assessed and Using Students' Results to Improve Your Assessments
About This Chapter
Getting Students Ready
Preparing Students for the Assessment
Advice About Changing Answers
Test Anxiety
Putting the Assessment Together
Assessment Format and Appearance
Preparations for Scoring the Assessment
Correction for Guessing
Using Students' Responses to Improve Assessments
Item Analysis for Classroom Assessments
Item Difficulty Index
Item Discrimination Index
Improving Multiple-Choice Item Quality
Selecting Test Items
Using Computers for Test Assembly and Item Analyses
Evaluating and Grading Student Progress
About This Chapter
The Meanings and Purposes of Grades
What Are Your Attitudes Toward Marks and Grades?
Continuous Assessment and Grading
How People Perceive and Use Grades
Criticisms of Grades and Marks
Report Cards and Other Official Reports of Student Progress
Student Progress Reporting Methods
Crafting a Multiple Reporting System
Choosing a Grading Model
Overview of Section III
Basic Concepts of Grading Frameworks for Classroom Evaluation
Choosing Your Grading Model
Sensible Grading Practices
Types of Performance to Assess
Consistent Grading Throughout the Marking Period
Components of a Grade
Grade Boundaries
Failure Grades
Techniques for Setting Grade Boundaries and Combining Scores
Assigning Norm-Referenced Letter Grades
Assigning Criterion-Referenced Letter Grades
Gradebook Computer Programs
Interpreting and Using Standardized Tests
Standardized Achievement Tests
About This Chapter
Types of Tests
Standardized Survey Batteries
State-Mandated Tests and Customized Tests
Nonstandardized Achievement Tests
Appropriate Uses of Standardized Test Results
Inappropriate Uses of Standardized Test Results
Multilevel Survey Batteries
Choosing Standardized Tests
Complementing Your State Assessment
How to Administer Standardized Tests
Ethical and Unethical Student Practice for Standardized Tests
Interpreting Norm-Referenced Scores
About This Chapter
Three Referencing Frameworks
Using Norms
Types of Norm Groups
Overview of Norm-Referenced Scores
Percentile Ranks
Linear Standard Scores
Normal Distributions
Normalized Standard Scores
Developmental and Educational Growth Scales
Extended Normalized Standard Score Scales
Grade-Equivalent Scores
Comparison of Various Norm-Referenced Scores
General Guidelines for Score Interpretation
Interpreting Scores to Parents
Finding and Evaluating Published Assessments
About This Chapter
Locating a Published Test
Locating Evaluations of Published Tests
Locating Computerized Testing Materials
Locating Unpublished Test Materials
Restrictions on Purchasing and Using Tests
Evaluating and Selecting a Test
How a Standardized Test Is Developed
Scholastic Aptitude, Career Interests, Attitudes, and Personality Tests
About This Chapter
Aptitudes for Learning
Group Tests of Scholastic Aptitudes
Group Tests of Specific Aptitudes
Individually Administered Tests of General Scholastic Aptitudes
Assessing Adaptive Behavior
Assessing Vocational and Career Interests
Assessing Attitudes
Assessing Personality Dimensions
Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students
Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (Revised)
Code of Professional Responsibilities in Educational Measurement
Summaries of Taxonomies of Educational Objectives: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains
Categories of Learning Targets Derived from the Dimensions of Learning Model
Assessment of Metacognition
Examples of Alternative Blueprints for a Summative Unit Assessment
Scoring Guide for Oregon's Writing Assessment
Basic Statistical Concepts
Computational Procedures for Various Reliability Coefficients
A Limited List of Published Tests
List of Test Publishers and Their Websites
Name Index
Subject Index
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