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Physical Constants | |

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Preface | |

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Nature of Light | |

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Introduction | |

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A Brief History | |

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Particles and Photons | |

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum | |

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Radiometry | |

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Problems | |

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Geometrical Optics | |

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Introduction | |

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Huygens' Principle | |

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Fermat's Principle | |

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Principle of Reversibility | |

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Reflection in Plane Mirrors | |

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Refraction Through Plane Surfaces | |

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Imaging by an Optical System | |

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Reflection at a Spherical Surface | |

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Refraction at a Spherical Surface | |

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Thin Lenses | |

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Vergence and Refractive Power | |

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Newtonian Equation for the Thin Lens | |

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Cylindrical Lenses | |

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Problems | |

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Optical Instrumentation | |

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Introduction | |

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Stops, Pupils, and Windows | |

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A Brief Look at Aberrations | |

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Prisms | |

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The Camera | |

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Simple Magnifiers and Eyepieces | |

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Microscopes | |

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Telescopes | |

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Problems | |

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Wave Equations | |

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Introduction | |

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One-Dimensional Wave Equation | |

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Harmonic Waves | |

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Complex Numbers | |

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Harmonic Waves as Complex Functions | |

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Plane Waves | |

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Spherical Waves | |

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Other Harmonic Waveforms | |

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Electromagnetic Waves | |

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Light Polarization | |

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Doppler Effect | |

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Problems | |

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Superposition of Waves | |

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Introduction | |

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Superposition Principle | |

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Superposition of Waves of the Same Frequency | |

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Random and Coherent Sources | |

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Standing Waves | |

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The Beat Phenomenon | |

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Phase and Group Velocities | |

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Problems | |

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Properties of Lasers | |

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Introduction | |

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Energy Quantization in Light and Matter | |

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Thermal Equilibrium and Blackbody Radiation | |

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Nonlaser Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation | |

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Einstein's Theory of Light-Matter Interaction | |

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Essential Elements of a Laser | |

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Simplified Description of Laser Operation | |

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Characteristics of Laser Light | |

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Laser Types and Parameters | |

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Problems | |

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Interference of Light | |

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Introduction | |

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Two-Beam Interference | |

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Young's Double-Slit Experiment | |

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Double-Slit Interference with Virtual Sources | |

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Interference in Dielectric Films | |

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Fringes of Equal Thickness | |

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Newton's Rings | |

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Film-Thickness Measurement by Interference | |

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Stokes Relations | |

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Multiple-Beam Interference in a Parallel Plate | |

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Problems | |

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Optical Interferometry | |

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Introduction | |

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The Michelson Interferometer | |

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Applications of the Michelson Interferometer | |

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Variations of the Michelson Interferometer | |

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The Fabry-Perot Interferometer | |

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Fabry-Perot Transmission: The Airy Function | |

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Scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer | |

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Variable-Input-Frequency Fabry-Perot Interferometers | |

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Lasers and the Fabry-Perot Cavity | |

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Fabry-Perot Figures of Merit | |

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Gravitational Wave Detectors | |

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Problems | |

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Coherence | |

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Introduction | |

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Fourier Analysis | |

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Fourier Analysis of a Finite Harmonic Wave Train | |

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Temporal Coherence and Line Width | |

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Partial Coherence | |

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Spatial Coherence | |

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Spatial Coherence Width | |

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Problems | |

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Fiber Optics | |

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Introduction | |

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Applications | |

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Communications System Overview | |

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Bandwidth and Data Rate | |

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Optics of Propagation | |

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Allowed Modes | |

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Attenuation | |

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Distortion | |

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High-Bit-Rate Optical-Fiber Communications | |

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Problems | |

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Fraunhofer Diffraction | |

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Introduction | |

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Diffraction from a Single Slit | |

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Beam Spreading | |

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Rectangular and Circular Apertures | |

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Resolution | |

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Double-Slit Diffraction | |

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Diffraction from Many Slits | |

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Problems | |

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The Diffraction Grating | |

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Introduction | |

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The Grating Equation | |

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Free Spectral Range of a Grating | |

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Dispersion of a Grating | |

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Resolution of a Grating | |

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Types of Gratings | |

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Blazed Gratings | |

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Grating Replicas | |

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Interference Gratings | |

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Grating Instruments | |

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Problems | |

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Fresnel Diffraction | |

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Introduction | |

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Fresnel-Kirchhoff Diffraction Integral | |

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Criterion for Fresnel Diffraction | |

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The Obliquity Factor | |

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Fresnel Diffraction from Circular Apertures | |

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Phase Shift of the Diffracted Light | |

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The Fresnel Zone Plate | |

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Fresnel Diffraction from Apertures with Rectangular Symmetry | |

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The Cornu Spiral | |

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Applications of the Cornu Spiral | |

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Babinet's Principle | |

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Problems | |

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Matrix Treatment of Polarization | |

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Introduction | |

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Mathematical Representation of Polarized Light: Jones Vectors | |

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Mathematical Representation of Polarizers: Jones Matrices | |

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Problems | |

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Production of Polarized Light | |

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Introduction | |

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Dichroism: Polarization by Selective Absorption | |

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Polarization by Reflection from Dielectric Surfaces | |

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Polarization by Scattering | |

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Birefringence: Polarization with Two Refractive Indices | |

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Double Refraction | |

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Optical Activity | |

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Photoelasticity | |

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Problems | |

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Holography | |

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Introduction | |

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Conventional Versus Holographic Photography | |

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Hologram of a Point Source | |

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Hologram of an Extended Object | |

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Hologram Properties | |

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White-Light (Rainbow) Holograms | |

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Other Applications of Holography | |

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Problems | |

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Optical Detectors and Displays | |

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Introduction | |

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Thermal Detectors of Radiation | |

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Quantum Detectors of Radiation | |

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Image Detection | |

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Optical Detectors: Noise and Sensitivity | |

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Optical Displays | |

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Problems | |

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Matrix Methods in Paraxial Optics | |

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Introduction | |

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The Thick Lens | |

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The Matrix Method | |

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The Translation Matrix | |

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The Refraction Matrix | |

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The Reflection Matrix | |

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Thick-Lens and Thin-Lens Matrices | |

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System Ray-Transfer Matrix | |

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Significance of System Matrix Elements | |

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Location of Cardinal Points for an Optical System | |

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Examples Using the System Matrix and Cardinal Points | |

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Ray Tracing | |

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Problems | |

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Optics of the Eye | |

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Introduction | |

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Biological Structure of the Eye | |

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Photometry | |

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Optical Representation of the Eye | |

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Functions of the Eye | |

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Vision Correction with External Lenses | |

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Surgical Vision Correction | |

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Problems | |

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Aberration Theory | |

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Introduction | |

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Ray and Wave Aberrations | |

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Third-Order Treatment of Refraction at a Spherical Interface | |

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Spherical Aberration | |

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Coma | |

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Astigmatism and Curvature of Field | |

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Distortion | |

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Chromatic Aberration | |

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Problems | |

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Fourier Optics | |

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Introduction | |

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Optical Data Imaging and Processing | |

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Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy | |

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Problems | |

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Theory of Multilayer Films | |

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Introduction | |

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Transfer Matrix | |

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Reflectance at Normal Incidence | |

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Two-Layer Antireflecting Films | |

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Three-Layer Antireflecting Films | |

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High-Reflectance Layers | |

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Problems | |

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Fresnel Equations | |

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Introduction | |

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The Fresnel Equations | |

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External and Internal Reflections | |

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Phase Changes on Reflection | |

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Conservation of Energy | |

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Evanescent Waves | |

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Complex Refractive Index | |

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Reflection from Metals | |

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Problems | |

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Nonlinear Optics and the Modulation of Light | |

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Introduction | |

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The Nonlinear Medium | |

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Second Harmonic Generation and Frequency Mixing | |

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Electro-optic Effects | |

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The Faraday Effect | |

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The Acousto-optic Effect | |

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Optical Phase Conjugation | |

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Optical Nonlinearities in Fibers | |

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Problems | |

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Optical Properties of Materials | |

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Introduction | |

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Polarization of a Dielectric Medium | |

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Propagation of Light Waves in a Dielectric | |

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Conduction Current in a Metal | |

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Propagation of Light Waves in a Metal | |

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Skin Depth | |

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Plasma Frequency | |

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Problems | |

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Laser Operation | |

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Introduction | |

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Rate Equations | |

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Absorption | |

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Gain Media | |

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Steady-State Laser Output | |

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Homogeneous Broadening | |

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Inhomogeneous Broadening | |

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Time-Dependent Phenomena | |

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Pulsed Operation | |

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Some Important Laser Systems | |

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Diode Lasers | |

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Problems | |

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Characteristics of Laser Beams | |

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Introduction | |

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Three-Dimensional Wave Equation and Electromagnetic Waves | |

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Gaussian Beams | |

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Spot Size and Radius of Curvature of a Gaussian Beam | |

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Characteristics of Gaussian Beams | |

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Modes of Spherical Mirror Cavities | |

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Laser Propagation Through Arbitrary Optical Systems | |

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Higher-Order Gaussian Beams | |

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Problems | |

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Selected Modern Applications | |

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Introduction | |

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Overview of Laser Applications | |

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Lasers in Medicine | |

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Remote Sensing | |

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Ultrashort Pulse Production and Applications | |

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Laser Cooling and Trapping | |

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Optical Parametric Oscillators | |

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Near-Field Microscopy | |

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Problems | |

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References | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Index | |