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Introduction | |

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Fundamentals of Statistics | |

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The Five Basic Words of Statistics | |

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Population | |

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Sample | |

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Parameter | |

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Statistic | |

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Variable | |

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The Branches of Statistics | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Inferential Statistics | |

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Sources of Data | |

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Published Sources | |

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Experiments | |

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Surveys | |

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Sampling Concepts | |

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Sampling | |

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Probability Sampling | |

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Simple Random Sampling | |

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Frame | |

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Sample Selection Methods | |

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Sampling With Replacement | |

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Sampling Without Replacement | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Presenting Data in Charts and Tables | |

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Presenting Categorical Data | |

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The Summary Table | |

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The Bar Chart | |

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The Pie Chart | |

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The Pareto Diagram | |

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Two-Way Cross-Classification Tables | |

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Presenting Numerical Data | |

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The Frequency and Percentage Distribution | |

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Histogram | |

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The Dot Scale Diagram | |

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The Time-Series Plot | |

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The Scatter Plot | |

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Misusing Graphs | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Descriptive Statistics for Numerical Variables | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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The Mean | |

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The Median | |

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The Mode | |

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Quartiles | |

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Measures of Variation | |

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The Range | |

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The Variance and the Standard Deviation | |

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Standard (Z) Scores | |

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Shape of Distributions | |

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Symmetrical Shape | |

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Left-Skewed Shape | |

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Right-Skewed Shape | |

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The Box-and-Whisker Plot | |

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Important Equations | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Probability | |

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Getting Started with Probability | |

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Event | |

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Elementary Event | |

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Random Variable | |

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Probability | |

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Collectively Exhaustive Events | |

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Some Rules of Probability | |

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Assigning Probabilities | |

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Classical Approach | |

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Empirical Approach | |

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Subjective Approach | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Probability Distributions | |

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Probability Distributions for Discrete Variables | |

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Discrete Probability Distribution | |

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The Expected Value of a Random Variable | |

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Standard Deviation of a Random Variable ([sigma]) | |

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The Binomial and Poisson Probability Distributions | |

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The Binomial Distribution | |

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The Poisson Distribution | |

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Continuous Probability Distributions and the Normal Distribution | |

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Normal Distribution | |

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Using Standard Deviation Units | |

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Finding the Z Value from the Area Under the Normal Curve | |

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The Normal Probability Plot | |

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Important Equations | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Sampling Distributions and Confidence Intervals | |

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Sampling Distributions | |

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Sampling Distribution | |

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Sampling Distribution of the Mean and the Central Limit Theorem | |

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Sampling Distribution of the Proportion | |

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What You Need to Know About Sampling Distributions | |

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Sampling Error and Confidence Intervals | |

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Sampling Error | |

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Confidence Interval Estimate | |

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Confidence Interval Estimate for the Mean Using the t Distribution ([sigma] Unknown) | |

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t Distribution | |

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Confidence Interval Estimation for the Proportion | |

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Important Equations | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing | |

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The Null and Alternative Hypotheses | |

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Null Hypothesis | |

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Alternative Hypothesis | |

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Hypothesis Testing Issues | |

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Test Statistic | |

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Practical Significance Versus Statistical Significance | |

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Decision-Making Risks | |

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Type I Error | |

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Type II Error | |

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Risk Trade-Off | |

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Performing Hypothesis Testing | |

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The p-Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing | |

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p-Value | |

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Types of Hypothesis Tests | |

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Number of Groups | |

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Relationship Stated in Alternative Hypothesis H[subscript 1] | |

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Type of Variable | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Hypothesis Testing: Z and t Tests | |

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Testing for the Difference Between Two Proportions | |

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Testing for the Difference Between the Means of Two Independent Groups | |

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Pooled-Variance t Test | |

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Pooled-Variance t Test Assumptions | |

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The Paired t Test | |

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Important Equations | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Hypothesis Testing: Chi-Square Tests and the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | |

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Chi-Square Test for Two-Way Tables | |

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One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): Testing for the Differences Among the Means of More Than Two Groups | |

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One-Way ANOVA | |

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The Three Variances of ANOVA | |

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ANOVA Summary Table | |

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One-Way ANOVA Assumptions | |

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Important Equations | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Regression Analysis | |

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Basics of Regression Analysis | |

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Simple Linear Regression | |

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Determining the Simple Linear Regression Equation | |

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Y intercept | |

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Slope | |

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Least-Squares Method | |

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Regression Model Prediction | |

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Measures of Variation | |

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Regression Sum of Squares (SSR) | |

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Error Sum of Squares (SSE) | |

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Total Sum of Squares (SST) | |

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The Coefficient of Determination | |

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The Coefficient of Correlation | |

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Standard Error of the Estimate | |

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Regression Assumptions | |

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Residual Analysis | |

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Residual | |

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Evaluating the Assumptions | |

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Inferences About the Slope | |

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t Test for the Slope | |

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Confidence Interval Estimate of the Slope ([beta subscript 1]) | |

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Common Mistakes Using Regression Analysis | |

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Important Equations | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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Quality and Six Sigma Management Applications of Statistics | |

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Total Quality Management | |

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Six Sigma Management | |

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Six Sigma | |

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The Six Sigma DMAIC Model | |

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Control Charts | |

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Special or Assignable Causes of Variation | |

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Chance or Common Causes of Variation | |

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Control Limits | |

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The p Chart | |

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The Parable of the Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability | |

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Deming's Red Bead Experiment | |

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Variables Control Charts for the Mean and Range | |

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Important Equations | |

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One-Minute Summary | |

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Test Yourself | |

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Answers to Test Yourself Questions | |

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References | |

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TI Statistical Calculator Settings and Microsoft Excel Settings | |

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TI Statistical Calculator Settings | |

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"Ready State" Assumptions | |

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Menu Selections | |

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Statistical Function Entries by Menus | |

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Primary Key Legend Convention | |

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Mode Settings | |

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Calculator Clearing and Reset | |

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Data Storage | |

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Microsoft Excel Settings | |

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Review of Arithmetic and Algebra | |

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Assessment Quiz | |

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Part 1 | |

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Part 2 | |

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Symbols | |

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Addition | |

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Subtraction | |

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Multiplication | |

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Division | |

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Fractions | |

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Exponents and Square Roots | |

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Equations | |

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Answers to Quiz | |

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Part 1 | |

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Part 2 | |

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Statistical Tables | |

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The Cumulative Standardized Normal Distribution | |

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Critical Values of t | |

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Critical Values of X[superscript 2] | |

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Critical Values of F | |

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Control Chart Factors | |

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Using Microsoft Excel Wizards | |

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Using the Chart Wizard | |

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Choosing the Best Chart Options | |

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Using the PivotTable Wizard | |

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Using the Data Analysis Tools | |

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Simple Linear Regression | |

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Glossary | |

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Index | |