High Speed Signal Propagation Advanced Black Magic

ISBN-10: 013084408X

ISBN-13: 9780130844088

Edition: 2003

Authors: Prentice-Hall Staff, Howard W. Johnson

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Book details

List price: $130.00
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 2/24/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 800
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 3.366
Language: English

Glossary of Symbols
Impedance of Linear, Time-Invariant, Lumped-Element Circuits
Power Ratios
Rules of Scaling
Scaling of Physical Size
Power Scaling
Time Scaling
Impedance Scaling with Constant Voltage
Dielectric-Constant Scaling
Magnetic Permeability Scaling
The Concept of Resonance
Extra for Experts: Maximal Linear System Response to a Digital Input
Transmission Line Parameters
Telegrapher's Equations
So Good It Works on Barbed Wire
The No-Storage Principle and Its Implications for Returning Signal Current
Derivation of Telegrapher's Equations
Definition of Characteristic Impedance ZC
Changes in Characteristic Impedance
Calculation of Impedance Zc From Parameters R, L, G, And C
Definition of Propagation Coefficient [gamma]
Calculation of Propagation Coefficient [gamma] from Parameters R, L, G, and C
Ideal Transmission Line
DC Resistance
DC Conductance
Skin Effect
What Causes the Skin Effect, and What Does It Have to Do With Skin?
Eddy Currents within a Conductor
High and Low-Frequency Approximations for Series Resistance
Skin-Effect Inductance
Modeling Internal Impedance
Practical Modeling of Internal Impedance
Special Issues Concerning Rectangular Conductors
Concentric-Ring Skin-Effect Model
Modeling Skin Effect
Regarding Modeling Skin Effect
Proximity Effect
Proximity Factor
Proximity Effect for Coaxial Cables
Proximity Effect for Microstrip and Stripline Circuits
Last Words on Proximity Effect
Surface Roughness
Severity of Surface Roughness
Onset of Roughness Effect
Roughness of PCB Materials
Controlling Roughness
Dielectric Effects
Dielectric Loss Tangent
Rule of Mixtures
Calculating the Loss Tangent for a Uniform Dielectric Mixture
Calculating the Loss Tangent When You Don't Know q
Causality and the Network Function Relations
Finding [vertical bar]er[vertical bar] to Match a Measured Loss Tangent
Kramers-Kronig Relations
Complex Magnetic Permeability
Impedance in Series with the Return Path
Slow-Wave Mode On-Chip
Performance Regions
Signal Propagation Model
Extracting Parameters for RLGC Simulators
Hierarchy of Regions
A Transmission Line Is Always a Transmission Line
Necessary Mathematics: Input Impedance and Transfer Function
Lumped-Element Region
Boundary of Lumped-Element Region
Pi Model
Taylor-Series Approximation of H (Lumped-Element Region)
Input impedance (Lumped-Element Region)
Transfer Function (Lumped-Element Region)
Step Response (Lumped-Element Region)
RC Region
Boundary of RC Region
Input Impedance (RC Region)
Characteristic Impedance (RC Region)
General Behavior within RC Region
Propagation Coefficient (RC Region)
Transfer Function (RC Region)
Normalized Step Response (RC Region)
Tradeoffs Between Distance and Speed (RC Region)
Closed-Form Solution for Step Response (RC Region)
Elmore Delay Estimation (RC Region)
LC Region (Constant-Loss Region)
Boundary of LC Region
Characteristic Impedance (LC Region)
Influence of Series Resistance on TDR Measurements
Propagation Coefficient (LC Region)
Possibility of Severe Resonance within the LC Region
Terminating an LC Transmission Line
Tradeoffs Between Distance And Speed (LC Region)
Mixed-Mode Operation (LC and RC Regions)
Skin-Effect Region
Boundary of Skin-Effect Region
Characteristic Impedance (Skin-Effect Region)
Influence of Skin-Effect on TDR Measurement
Propagation Coefficient (Skin-Effect Region)
Possibility of Severe Resonance within Skin-Effect Region
Step Response (Skin-Effect Region)
Tradeoffs Between Distance and Speed (Skin-Effect Region)
Dielectric Loss Region
Boundary of Dielectric-Loss-Limited Region
Characteristic Impedance (Dielectric-Loss-Limited Region)
Influence of Dielectric Loss on TDR Measurement
Propagation Coefficient (Dielectric-Loss-Limited Region)
Possibility of Severe Resonance within Dielectric-Loss Limited Region
Step Response (Dielectric-Loss-Limited Region)
Tradeoffs Between Distance and Speed (Dielectric-Loss Region)
Waveguide Dispersion Region
Boundary of Waveguide-Dispersion Region
Summary of Breakpoints Between Regions
Equivalence Principle for Transmission Media
Scaling Copper Transmission Media
Scaling Multimode Fiber-Optic Cables
Linear Equalization: Long Backplane Trace Example
Adaptive Equalization: Accelerant Networks Transceiver
Frequency-Domain Modeling
Going Nonlinear
Approximations to the Fourier Transform
Discrete Time Mapping
Other Limitations of the FFT
Normalizing the Output of an FFT Routine
Deriving the DFT Normalization Factors
Useful Fourier Transform-Pairs
Effect of Inadequate Sampling Rate
Implementation of Frequency-Domain Simulation
What if a Large Bulk-Transport Delay Causes the Waveform to Slide Off the end of the Time-Domain Window?
How Do I Transform an Arbitrary Data Sequence?
How Do I Shift the Time-Domain Waveforms?
What If I Want to Model a More Complicated System?
What About Differential Modeling?
Checking the Output of Your FFT Routine
Pcb (printed-circuit board) Traces
Pcb Signal Propagation
Characteristic Impedance and Delay
Resistive Effects
Dielectric Effects
Mixtures of Skin Effect and Dielectric Loss
Non-TEM Modes
Limits to Attainable Distance
SONET Data Coding
Pcb Noise and Interference
Pcb: Reflections
Pcb Crosstalk
Pcb Connectors
Mutual Understanding
Through-Hole Clearances
Measuring Connectors
Tapered Transitions
Straddle-Mount Connectors
Cable Shield Grounding
Modeling Vias
Incremental Parameters of a Via
Three Models for a Via
Dangling Vias
Capacitance Data
Inductance Data
The Future of On-Chip Interconnections
Differential Signaling
Single-Ended Circuits
Two-Wire Circuits
Differential Signaling
Differential and Common-Mode Voltages and Currents
Differential and Common-Mode velocity
Common-Mode Balance
Common-Mode Range
Differential to Common-Mode Conversion
Differential Impedance
Relation Between Odd-Mode and Uncoupled Impedance
Why the Odd-Mode Impedance Is Always Less Than the Uncoupled Impedance
Differential Reflections
Pcb Configurations
Differential (Microstrip) Trace Impedance
Edge-Coupled Stripline
Breaking Up a Pair
Broadside-Coupled Stripline
PCB Applications
Matching to an External, Balanced Differential Transmission Medium
Defeating ground bounce
Reducing EMI with Differential Signaling
Punching Through a Noisy Connector
Reducing Clock Skew
Reducing Local Crosstalk
A Good Reference about Transmission Lines
Differential Clocks
Differential Termination
Differential U-Turn
Your Layout Is Skewed
Buying Time
Intercabinet Applications
Ribbon-Style Twisted-Pair Cables
Immunity to Large Ground Shifts
Rejection of External Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI)
Differential Receivers Have Superior Tolerance to Skin Effect and Other High-Frequency Losses
LVDS Signaling
Output Levels
Common-Mode Output
Common-Mode Noise Tolerance
Differential-Mode Noise Tolerance
Impedance Control
Trace Radiation
Input Capacitance
Generic Building-Cabling Standards
Generic Cabling Architecture
SNR Budgeting
Glossary of Cabling Terms
Preferred Cable Combinations
FAQ: Building-Cabling Practices
Crossover Wiring
Plenum-Rated Cables
Laying cables in an Uncooled Attic Space
FAQ: Older Cable Types
100-Ohm Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling
UTP Signal Propagation
UTP Modeling
Adapting the Metallic-Transmission Model
UTP Transmission Example: 10BASE-T
UTP Noise and Interference
UTP: Far-End Reflections
UTP: Near-End Reflections
UTP: Hybrid Circuits
UTP: Near-End Crosstalk
UTP: Alien crosstalk
UTP: Far-End Crosstalk
Power sum NEXT and ELFEXT
UTP: Radio-Frequency Interference
UTP: Radiation
UTP Connectors
Issues with Screening
Category-3 UTP at Elevated Temperature
150-Ohm STP-A Cabling
150-[Omega] STP-A Signal Propagation
150-[Omega] STP-A Noise and Interference
150-[Omega] STP-A: Skew
150-[Omega] STP-A: Radiation and Safety
150-[Omega] STP-A: Comparison with UTP
150-[Omega] STP-A Connectors
Coaxial Cabling
Coaxial Signal Propagation
Stranded Center-Conductors
Why 50 Ohms?
50-Ohm Mailbag
Coaxial Cable Noise and Interference
Coax: Far-End Reflected Noise
Coax: Radio Frequency Interference
Coax: Radiation
Coaxial Cable: Safety Issues
Coaxial Cable Connectors
Fiber-Optic Cabling
Making Glass Fiber
Finished Core Specifications
Cabling the Fiber
Wavelengths of Operation
Multimode Glass Fiber-Optic Cabling
Multimode Signal Propagation
Why Is Graded-Index Fiber Better than Step-Index?
Standards for Multimode Fiber
What Considerations Govern the Use of 50-micron Fiber?
Multimode Optical Performance Budget
Multimode Fiber-Optic Noise and Interference
Multimode Fiber Safety
Multimode Fiber with Laser Source
VCSEL Diodes
Multimode Fiber-Optic Connectors
Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Cabling
Single-Mode Signal Propagation
Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Noise and Interference
Single-Mode Fiber Safety
Single-Mode Fiber-Optic Connectors
Clock Distribution
Extra Fries, Please
Arithmetic of Clock Skew
Clock Repeaters
Active Skew Correction
Zero-Delay Clock Repeaters
Compensating for Line Length
Stripline vs. Microstrip Delay
Importance of Terminating Clock Lines
Effect of Clock Receiver Thresholds
Effect of Split Termination
Intentional Delay Adjustments
Fixed Delay
Adjustable Delays
Automatically Programmable Delays
Serpentine Delays
Switchback Coupling
Driving Multiple Loads with Source Termination
To Tee or Not To Tee
Driving Two Loads
Daisy-Chain Clock Distribution
Case Study of Daisy-Chained Clock
The Jitters
When Clock Jitter Matters
Measuring Clock Jitter
Power Supply Filtering for Clock Sources, Repeaters, and PLL Circuits
Healthy Power
Clean Power
Intentional Clock Modulation
Signal Integrity Mailbag
Jitter-Free Clocks
Reduced-Voltage Signaling
Controlling Crosstalk on Clock Lines
Reducing Emissions
Time-Domain Simulation Tools and Methods
Ringing in a New Era
Signal Integrity Simulation Process
How Much Modeling Do You Need?
What Happens After Parameter Extraction?
A Word of Caution
The Underlying Simulation Engine
Evolving Forward
Pitfalls of SPICE-Like Algorithms
Transmission Lines
Interpreting Your Results
Using SPICE Intelligently
IBIS (I/O Buffer Information Specification)
What Is IBIS?
Who Created IBIS?
What Is Good About IBIS?
What's Wrong with IBIS?
What You Can Do to Help
IBIS: History and Future Direction
IBIS Historical Overview
Comparison to SPICE
Future Directions
IBIS: Issues with Interpolation
IBIS: Issues with SSO Noise
Nature of EMC Work
EMC Simulation
Power and Ground Resonance
Collected References
Points to Remember
Building a Signal Integrity Department
Calculation of Loss Slope
Two-Port Analysis
Simple Cases Involving Transmission Lines
Fully Configured Transmission Line
Complicated Configurations
Accuracy of Pi Model
Pi-Model Operated in the LC Region
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*A minimum purchase of $35 is required. Shipping is provided via FedEx SmartPost® and FedEx Express Saver®. Average delivery time is 1 – 5 business days, but is not guaranteed in that timeframe. Also allow 1 - 2 days for processing. Free shipping is eligible only in the continental United States and excludes Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico. FedEx service marks used by permission."Marketplace" orders are not eligible for free or discounted shipping.

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