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Human Anatomy

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ISBN-10: 0130615692

ISBN-13: 9780130615695

Edition: 4th 2003

Authors: Frederic Martini, Michael J. Timmons, Robert B. Tallitsch

List price: $128.00
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Book details

List price: $128.00
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company
Publication date: 6/3/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 896
Size: 10.75" wide x 1.37" long x 12.25" tall
Weight: 7.282
Language: English

Timmons received his degrees from Loyola University, Chicago. For more than 30 years he has had a strong commitment to teaching human anatomy and physiology to nursing and preprofessional students at Moraine Valley Community College.

Tallitsch received his PhD in physiology with an anatomy minor from the University of Wisconsin-Madison at age 24. Since then he has been on the biology faculty at Augustana College in Rock Island, Illinois.

An Introduction to Anatomy
Microscopic Anatomy
Gross Anatomy
Other Perspectives on Anatomy
Levels of Organization
An Introduction to Organ Systems
The Language of Anatomy
Superficial Anatomy
Anatomical Landmarks
Anatomical Regions
Anatomical Directions
Sectional Anatomy
Planes and Sections
Body Cavities
Clinical Discussion: Sectional Anatomy and Clinical Technology
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Anatomy and Observation
The Cell
The Study of Cells
Cellular Anatomy
The Cell Membrane
Membrane Permeability: Passive Processes
Membrane Permeability: Active Processes
The Cytoplasm
The Cytosol
Nonmembranous Organelles
The Cytoskeleton
Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella
Membranous Organelles
The Nucleus
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
The Golgi Apparatus
Membrane Flow
Intercellular Attachment
The Cell Life Cycle
Clinical Brief: Cell Division and Cancer
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Causes of Cancer
The Tissue Level of Organization
Epithelial Tissue
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
Embryology Summary: Formation of Tissues
Specializations of Epithelial Cells
Maintaining the Integrity of the Epithelium
Intercellular Connections
Attachment to the Basement Membrane
Epithelial Maintenance and Renewal
Classification of Epithelia
Squamous Epithelia
Cuboidal Epithelia
Columnar Epithelia
Glandular Epithelia
Types of Secretion
Gland Structure
Modes of Secretion
Embryology Summary: Development of Epithelia
Connective Tissues
Classification of Connective Tissues
Connective Tissue Proper
Cells of Connective Tissue Proper
Connective Tissue Fibers
Ground Substance
Embryonic Tissues
Loose Connective Tissues
Dense Connective Tissues
Fluid Connective Tissues
Supporting Connective Tissues
Clinical Brief: Sharks and the Fight Against Cancer ("Jaws" to the Rescue)
Embryology Summary: Origins of Connective Tissues
Mucous Membranes
Serous Membranes
The Cutaneous Membrane
Synovial Membranes
The Connective Tissue Framework of the Body
Muscle Tissue
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Smooth Muscle Tissue
Neural Tissue
Tissues, Nutrition, and Aging
Embryology Summary: Development of Organ Systems
Clinical Discussion: Tumor Formation and Growth
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Infants and Brown Fat
Cartilages and Knee Injuries
Problems with Serous Membranes
Tissue Structure and Disease
The Integumentary System
Integumentary Structure and Function
The Epidermis
Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum Germinativum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Corneum
Clinical Brief: Transdermal Drug Administration
Thick and Thin Skin
Epidermal Ridges
Skin Color
The Dermis
Dermal Organization
Wrinkles, Stretch Marks, and Lines of Cleavage
Other Dermal Components
The Blood Supply to the Skin
The Nerve Supply to the Skin
The Subcutaneous Layer
Accessory Structures
Hair Follicles and Hair
Hair Production
Follicle Structure
Functions of Hair
Types of Hairs
Hair Color
Growth and Replacement of Hair
Glands in the Skin
Sebaceous Glands
Sweat Glands
Control of Glandular Secretions
Other Integumentary Glands
Clinical Brief: Seborrheic Dermatitis
Local Control of Integumentary Function
Clinical Brief: Anthrax
Aging and the Integumentary System
Embryology Summary: Development of the Integumentary System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Psoriasis and Xerosis
Skin Cancers
Tumors in the Dermis
Baldness and Hirsutism
Inflammation of the Skin
Complications of Inflammation
Burns and Grafts
Scar Tissue Formation
Synthetic Skin
The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure
Structure of Bone
Histological Organization
The Matrix of Bone
The Cells of Bone
Compact and Spongy Bone
Structural Differences Between Compact and Spongy Bone
Functional Differences Between Compact and Spongy Bone
The Periosteum and Endosteum
Clinical Brief: Rickets
Bone Development and Growth
Intramembranous Ossification
Endochondral Ossification
Increasing the Length of a Developing Bone
Increasing the Diameter of a Developing Bone
Formation of the Blood and Lymphatic Supply
Bone Innervation
Factors Regulating Bone Growth
Bone Maintenance, Repair, and Remodeling
Changes in Bone Shape
Injury and Repair
Aging and the Skeletal System
Clinical Discussion: A Classification of Fractures
Anatomy of Skeletal Elements
Classification of Bones
Bone Markings (Surface Features)
Integration with Other Systems
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Inherited Abnormalities in Skeletal Development
Osteoporosis and Other Skeletal Abnormalities Associated with Aging
The Skeletal System: Axial Division
The Skull and Associated Bones
Bones of the Cranium
Occipital Bone
Parietal Bones
Frontal Bone
Temporal Bones
The Cranial Fossae
Bones of the Face
The Maxillae
The Palatine Bones
The Nasal Bones
The Inferior Nasal Conchae
The Zygomatic Bones
The Lacrimal Bones
The Vomer
The Mandible
The Orbital and Nasal Complexes
The Orbital Complex
The Nasal Complex
Clinical Brief: Sinus Problems and Septal Defects
Hyoid Bone
Embryology Summary: Development of the Skull
The Skulls of Infants, Children, and Adults
Clinical Brief: Problems with Growth of the Skull
The Vertebral Column
Spinal Curvature
Clinical Brief: Kyphosis, Lordosis, Scoliosis
Vertebral Anatomy
The Vertebral Body
The Vertebral Arch
The Articular Processes
Vertebral Articulation
Vertebral Regions
Cervical Vertebrae
Thoracic Vertebrae
Lumbar Vertebrae
The Sacrum
The Coccyx
Embryology Summary: Development of the Vertebral Column
Clinical Brief: Spina Bifida
The Thoracic Cage
The Ribs
Clinical Brief: Cracked Ribs
The Sternum
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
The Thoracic Cage and Surgical Procedures
The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division
The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb
The Pectoral Girdle
The Clavicle
The Scapula
The Upper Limb
The Humerus
The Ulna
The Radius
The Carpal Bones
The Hand
Embryology Summary: Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
The Pelvic Girdle
The Coxa
The Pelvis
The Lower Limb
The Femur
The Patella
The Tibia
The Fibula
The Tarsus
The Foot
Individual Variation in the Skeletal System
The Skeletal System: Articulations
The Classification of Joints
Synarthroses (Immovable Joints)
Amphiarthroses (Slightly Movable Joints)
Diarthroses (Freely Movable Joints)
Synovial Fluid
Accessory Structures
Strength versus Mobility
Clinical Brief: Dislocation of a Synovial Joint
Articular Form and Function
Describing Dynamic Motion
Types of Movements
Linear Motion (Gliding)
Angular Motion
Special Movements
A Structural Classification of Synovial Joints
Representative Articulations
The Temporomandibular Joint
Intervertebral Articulations
The Intervertebral Discs
Intervertebral Ligaments
Vertebral Movements
Clinical Discussion: Problems with the Intervertebral Discs
The Sternoclavicular Joint
The Shoulder Joint
Skeletal Muscles and Tendons
Clinical Brief: Shoulder Injuries
The Elbow Joint
Joints of the Wrist
Stability of the Wrist
The Joints of the Hand
The Hip Joint
The Articular Capsule
Stabilization of the Hip
The Knee Joint
The Articular Capsule
Supporting Ligaments
Locking of the Knee
Joints of the Ankle and Foot
The Ankle Joint
Joints of the Foot
Aging and Articulations
Bones and Muscles
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
The Thoracic Cage and Surgical Procedures
Rheumatism, Arthritis, and Synovial Function
Hip Fractures and the Aging Process
A Case Study: Bo Jackson's Hip Injury
Knee Injuries
Problems with the Ankle and Foot
The Muscular System: Skeletal Muscle Tissue and Muscle Organization
Functions of Skeletal Muscle
Anatomy of Skeletal Muscles
Gross Anatomy
Connective Tissue of Muscle
Nerves and Blood Vessels
Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Myofibrils and Myofilaments
Sarcomere Organization
Muscle Contraction
The Sliding Filament Theory
The Start of a Contraction
The End of a Contraction
Clinical Brief: Rigor Mortis
The Neural Control of Muscle Fiber Contraction
Muscle Contraction: A Summary
Motor Units and Muscle Control
Muscle Tone
Muscle Hypertrophy
Muscle Atrophy
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Distribution of Fast, Slow, and Intermediate Fibers
The Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Parallel Muscles
Convergent Muscles
Pennate Muscles
Circular Muscles
Levers: A Systems Design for Movement
Classes of Levers
Muscle Terminology
Origins and Insertions
Names of Skeletal Muscles
Aging and the Muscular System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
Myasthenia Gravis
The Muscular System: Axial Musculature
The Axial Musculature
Muscles of the Head and Neck
Muscles of Facial Expression
Extraocular Muscles
Muscles of Mastication
Muscles of the Tongue
Muscles of the Pharynx
Anterior Muscles of the Neck
Clinical Discussion: What's New?
Muscles of the Vertebral Column
Oblique and Rectus Muscles
The Diaphragm
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
Embryology Summary: Development of the Muscular System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
The Muscular System: The Appendicular Musculature
Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle
Muscles That Move the Arm
Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand
Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers
Clinical Brief: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
Muscles That Move the Thigh
Muscles That Move the Leg
Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes
Clinical Brief: Intramuscular Injections
Clinical Discussion: Compartment Syndrome
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Sports Injuries
Surface Anatomy
Regional Approach to Surface Anatomy
The Head and Neck
The Thorax
The Anterior Thorax
Back and Shoulder Regions
The Abdomen
The Upper Limb
The Forearm and Wrist
The Pelvis and Lower Limb
The Knee, Leg, Ankle, and Foot
The Nervous System: Neural Tissue
An Overview of the Nervous System
Cellular Organization in Neural Tissue
Neuroglia of the CNS
Neuroglia of the PNS
Neuron Classification
Neural Regeneration
The Nerve Impulse
Synaptic Communication
Chemical Synapses
Electrical Synapses
Neuron Organization and Processing
Embryology Summary: Introduction to the Development of the Nervous System
Anatomical Organization of the Nervous System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Axoplasmic Transport and Disease
Demyelination Disorders
Growth and Myelination of the Nervous System
The Nervous System: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Clinical Brief: Shingles
Spinal Meninges
The Dura Mater
The Arachnoid
The Pia Mater
Clinical Discussion: Spinal Taps and Myelography
Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Organization of Gray Matter
Organization of White Matter
Clinical Brief: Spinal Cord Injuries
Spinal Nerves
Peripheral Distribution of Spinal Nerves
Nerve Plexuses
The Cervical Plexus
The Brachial Plexus
The Lumbar Sacral Plexuses
Classification of Reflexes
Spinal Reflexes
Higher Centers and Integration of Reflexes
Embryology Summary: Development of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Spinal Meningitis
Spinal Anesthesia
Technology and Motor Paralysis
Multiple Sclerosis
Retlexes and Diagnostic Testing
The Nervous System: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
An Introduction to the Organization of the Brain
Embryology of the Brain
Major Regions and Landmarks
The Pons and Cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata
Gray Matter and White Matter Organization
The Ventricles of the Brain
Protection and Support of the Brain
The Cranial Meninges
The Dura Mater
The Arachnoid
The Pia Mater
Clinical Brief: Epidural and Subdural Hemorrhages
The Blood-Brain Barrier
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Formation of CSF
Circulation of CSF
Clinical Discussion: Hydrocephalus
The Cerebrum
The Cerebral Hemispheres
The Cerebral Lobes
Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Association Areas
Integrative Centers
The Central White Matter
The Basal Nuclei
Functions of the Basal Nuclei
The Limbic System
The Diencephalon
The Epithalamus
The Thalamus
Functions of Thalamic Nuclei
The Hypothalamus
Functions of the Hypothalamus
The Mesencephalon
Clinical Brief: The Substantia Nigra and Parkinson's Disease
The Pons
The Cerebellum
The Medulla Oblongata
Cranial Nerves
The Olfactory Nerve (N I)
The Optic Nerve (N II)
The Oculomotor Nerve (N III)
The Trochlear Nerve (N IV)
The Trigeminal Nerve (N V)
Clinical Brief: Tic Douloureux
Clinical Brief: Bell's Palsy
The Abducens Nerve (N VI)
The Facial Nerve (N VII)
The Vestibulocochlear Nerve (N VIII)
The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (N IX)
The Vagus Nerve (N X)
The Accessory Nerve (N XI)
The Hypoglossal Nerve (N XII)
A Summary of Cranial Nerve Branches and Functions
Embryology Summary: Development of the Brain and Cranial Nerves
Clinical Discussion: Cranial Reflexes
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Cranial Trauma
Cerebellar Dysfunction
The Nervous System: Pathways and Higher-Order Functions
Sensory and Motor Pathways
Sensory Pathways
The Posterior Column Pathway
The Spinothalamic Pathway
The Spinocerebellar Pathway
Motor Pathways
The Corticospinal Pathway
Clinical Brief: Cerebral Palsy
Medial and Lateral Pathways
The Basal Nuclei and Cerebellum
Levels of Somatic Motor Control
Clinical Brief: Anencephaly
Higher-Order Functions
Integrative Regions of the Cerebral Cortex
The General Interpretive Area
The Speech Center
The Prefrontal Cortex
Brodman Areas and Cortical Function
Hemispheric Specialization
Clinical Brief: Damage to the Integrative Centers
Clinical Brief: Disconnection Syndrome
Consciousness: The Reticular Activating System
Clinical Brief: Amnesia
Clinical Discussion: Levels of Consciousness
Aging and the Nervous System
Clinical Brief: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Clinical Brief: Alzheimer's Disease
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Tay-Sachs Disease
Huntington's Disease
The Nervous System: Autonomic Division
An Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Pathways for Visceral Motor Output
Subdivisions of the ANS
Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar) Division
Parasympathetic (Craniosacral) Division
Innervation Patterns
The Sympathetic Division
The Sympathetic Chain Ganglia
Functions of the Sympathetic Chain
Anatomy of the Sympathetic Chain
Collateral Ganglia
Functions of the Collateral Ganglia
Anatomy of the Collateral Ganglia
The Adrenal Medullae
Effects of Sympathetic Stimulation
Clinical Brief: Horner's Syndrome
Sympathetic Activation and Neurotransmitter Release
Membrane Receptors and Sympathetic Function
Alpha and Beta Receptors
Sympathetic Stimulation and ACh
A Summary of the Sympathetic Division
The Parasympathetic Division
Organization and Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Division
General Functions of the Parasympathetic Division
Parasympathetic Activation and Neurotransmitter Release
Membrane Receptors and Responses
A Summary of the Parasympathetic Division
Relationships Between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
Anatomy of Dual Innervation
A Comparison of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions
Visceral Reflexes
Higher Levels of Autonomic Control
Related Clinical Terms
The Nervous System: General and Special Senses
Interpretation of Sensory Information
Central Processing and Adaptation
Sensory Limitations
The General Senses
Tactile Receptors
Olfaction (Smell)
Olfactory Receptors
Olfactory Pathways
Olfactory Discrimination
Gustation (Taste)
Gustatory Receptors
Gustatory Pathways
Gustatory Discrimination
Equilibrium and Hearing
The External Ear
The Middle Ear
The Auditory Ossicles
Clinical Brief: Otitis Media and Mastoiditis
The Inner Ear
The Vestibular Complex and Equilibrium
Clinical Brief: Nystagmus
The Cochlea
Sound Detection
Clinical Brief: Hearing Loss
Auditory Pathways
Accessory Structures of the Eye
The Lacrimal Apparatus
The Eye
The Fibrous Tunic
The Vascular Tunic (Uvea)
Clinical Brief: Conjunctivitis
Clinical Brief: Corneal Transplants
The Neural Tunic
The Chambers of the Eye
The Lens
Clinical Brief: Glaucoma
Visual Pathways
Cortical Integration
The Brain Stem and Visual Processing
Clinical Brief: Cataracts
Embryology Summary: Development of Special Sense Organs
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
The Control of Pain
Assessment of Tactile Sensitivities
Vertigo, Dizziness, and Motion Sickness
Testing and Treating Hearing Deficits
Scotomas and Floaters
The Endocrine System
An Overview of the Endocrine System
The Hypothalamus and Endocrine Regulation
The Pituitary Gland
The Posterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
The Anterior Lobe of the Pituitary Gland
The Hypophyseal Portal System
Hormones of the Anterior Lobe
The Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Follicles and Thyroid Hormones
The C Cells of the Thyroid Gland
The Parathyroid Glands
The Thymus
The Adrenal Gland
The Adrenal Cortex
The Zona Glomerulosa
The Zona Fasciculata
The Zona Reticularis
The Adrenal Medulla
Endocrine Functions of the Kidneys and Heart
The Pancreas and Other Endocrine Tissuesof the Digestive System
The Pancreas
Endocrine Tissues of the Reproductive System
Embryology Summary: Development of the Endocrine System
The Pineal Gland
Hormones and Aging
Clinical Discussion: Endocrine Disorders
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Diabetes Insipidus
Thyroid Gland Disorders
Disorders of Parathyroid Function
Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
Disorders of the Adrenal Medulla
Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine Disorders
The Cardiovascular System: Blood
Functions of the Blood
Composition of the Blood
Clinical Brief: Transfusions
Differences Between Plasma and Interstitial Fluid
The Plasma Proteins
Clinical Brief: Plasma Expanders
Formed Elements
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
Clinical Brief: Anemia and Polycythemia
Structure of RBCs
RBC Life Span and Circulation
RBCs and Hemoglobin
Blood Types
Clinical Brief: Erythrocytosis
Clinical Brief: Elevating Hemoglobin Levels
Clinical Brief: Testing for Compatibility
White Blood Cells (WBCs)
Granular Leukocytes
Agranular Leukocytes
Clinical Brief: Hemophilia
Clinical Brief: Synthetic Blood
Stages in RBC Maturation
Clinical Brief: Blood Doping
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Blood Tests and RBCs
Sickle Cell Anemia
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
The Leukemias
Problems with the Clotting Process
The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
An Overview of the Circulatory System
The Pericardium
Structure of the Heart Wall
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
The Intercalated Discs
The Fibrous Skeleton
Orientation and Superficial Anatomy of the Heart
Internal Anatomy and Organization of the Heart
The Right Atrium
The Right Ventricle
The Left Atrium
The Left Ventricle
Structural Differences Between the Left and Right Ventricles
The Structure and Function of Heart Valves
Clinical Brief: Mitral Valve Prolapse
Heart Sounds
Coronary Blood Vessels
The Right Coronary Artery
The Left Coronary Artery
The Cardiac Veins
Clinical Discussion: Coronary Artery Disease
The Cardiac Cycle
The Coordination of Cardiac Contractions
The Sinoatrial and Atrioventricular Nodes
The Conducting System of the Heart
Clinical Brief: Myocardial Infarctions
The Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Autonomic Control of Heart Rate
Embryology Summary: Development of the Heart
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
The Cardiomyopathies
Valvular Heart Disease
Infection and Intlammation of the Heart
Rheumatic Heart Disease and Valvular Stenosis
Problems with Pacemaker Function
Monitoring the Living Heart
The Cardiovascular System: Vessels and Circulation
Histological Organization of Blood Vessels
Distinguishing Arteries from Veins
Elastic Arteries
Muscular Arteries
Capillary Beds
Medium-Sized Veins
Large Veins
Venous Valves
Clinical Discussion: Arteriosclerosis
The Distribution of Blood
Blood Vessel Distribution
The Pulmonary Circuit
The Systemic Circuit
Systemic Arteries
Systemic Veins
Cardiovascular Changes at Birth
Exercise and Cardiovascular Disease
Aging and the Cardiovascular System
Embryology Summary: Development of the Cardiovascular System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Problems with Venous Valve Function
The Lymphatic System
An Overview of the Lymphatic System
Functions of the Lymphatic System
Structure of Lymphatic Vessels
Lymphatic Capillaries
Valves of Lymphatic Vessels
Major Lymph-Collecting Vessels
The Thoracic Duct
The Right Lymphatic Duct
Types of Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes and the Immune Response
Distribution and Life Span of Lymphocytes
Lymphopoiesis: Lymphocyte Production
Lymphoid Tissues
Lymphoid Organs
Lymph Nodes
Distribution of Lymphoid Tissues and Lymph Nodes
Clinical Brief: Lymphadenopathy and Metastatic Cancer
The Thymus
The Spleen
Embryology Summary: Development of the Lymphatic System
Age and the Lymphatic System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Infected Lymphatic Nodules
Breast Cancer
Disorders of the Spleen
Immune Disorders
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
The Respiratory System
Overview of the Respiratory System
Functions of the Respiratory System
The Respiratory Epithelium
Clinical Brief: Cystic Fibrosis
The Upper Respiratory System
The Nose and Nasal Cavity
The Pharynx
The Nasopharynx
The Oropharynx
The Laryngopharynx
The Lower Respiratory System
The Larynx
Cartilages of the Larynx
Laryngeal Ligaments
The Laryngeal Musculature
The Trachea
Clinical Brief: Tracheal Blockage
The Primary Bronchi
The Lungs
Lobes of the Lungs
Lung Surfaces
The Pulmonary Bronchi
Branches of the Right Primary Bronchus
Branches of the Left Primary Bronchus
Branches of the Secondary Bronchi
The Bronchopulmonary Segments
Clinical Brief: Asthma
The Bronchioles
Alveolar Ducts and Alveoli
The Alveolus and the Respiratory Membrane
Clinical Brief: Emphysema
The Blood Supply to the Lungs
The Pleural Cavities and Membranes
Respiratory Muscles and Pulmonary Ventilation
Respiratory Muscles
Respiratory Movements
Respiratory Changes at Birth
Embryology Summary: Development of the Respiratory System
Respiratory Centers of the Brain
Clinical Brief: Artificial Respiration and CPR
Aging and the Respiratory System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Overloading the Respiratory Defenses
Disorders of the Larynx
Examining the Living Lung
Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)
Pulmonary Embolism
Lung Cancer, Smoking, and Diet
The Digestive System
An Overview of the Digestive System
Histological Organization of the Digestive Tract
The Mucosa
The Submucosa
The Muscularis Externa
The Serosa
Muscularis Layers and the Movement of Digestive Materials
The Peritoneum
Clinical Brief: Peritonitis
The Oral Cavity
Anatomy of the Oral Cavity
The Tongue
Salivary Glands
Embryology Summary: Development of the Digestive System
Clinical Brief: Mumps
The Teeth
Clinical Brief: Dental Problems
The Pharynx
The Swallowing Process
The Esophagus
Histology of the Esophageal Wall
The Stomach
Anatomy of the Stomach
Mesenteries of the Stomach
Blood Supply to the Stomach
Musculature of the Stomach
Histology of the Stomach
Clinical Brief: Gastritis and Peptic Ulcers
Regulation of the Stomach
The Small Intestine
Clinical Brief: Drastic Weight Loss Techniques
Regions of the Small Intestine
The Duodenum
The Jejunum
The Ileum
Support of the Small Intestine
Histology of the Small Intestine
The Intestinal Epithelium
Intestinal Crypts
The Lamina Propria
Regional Specializations
Regulation of the Small Intestine
The Large Intestine
The Cecum
The Colon
Regions of the Colon
The Rectum
Histology of the Large Intestine
Regulation of the Large Intestine
Accessory Digestive Organs
The Liver
Anatomy of the Liver
Histological Organization of the Liver
The Gallbladder
Clinical Brief: Problems with Bile Storage and Secretion
The Pancreas
Histological Organization of the Pancreas
Pancreatic Enzymes
The Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion
Clinical Brief: Pancreatitis
Aging and the Digestive System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Achalasia and Esophagitis
Stomach Cancer
Diverticulitis and Colitis
The Urinary System
The Kidneys
Superficial Anatomy of the Kidney
Sectional Anatomy of the Kidney
The Blood Supply to the Kidneys
Innervation of the Kidneys
Histology of the Kidney
An Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Nephron
The Renal Corpuscle
The Proximal Convoluted Tubule
The Loop of Henle
The Distal Convoluted Tubule
The Collecting System
Clinical Discussion: Examination of the Kidneys and Urinary System
Structures for Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination
The Ureters
Histology of the Ureters
The Urinary Bladder
Histology of the Urinary Bladder
Clinical Brief: Problems with the Conducting System
The Urethra
Histology of the Urethra
Clinical Brief: Urinary Tract Infections
The Micturition Reflex and Urination
Aging and the Urinary System
Embryology Summary: Development of the Urinary System
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Urine Composition
Problems with the Micturition Reflex
The Reproductive System: Organization of the Reproductive System
Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
The Testes
Descent of the Testes
The Spermatic Cord
Clinical Brief: Cryptorchidism
The Scrotum and the Position of the Testes
Structure of the Testes
Histology of the Testes
Spermatogenesis and Meiosis
Sustentacular Cells
Anatomy of a Spermatozoon
The Male Reproductive Tract
The Epididymis
The Ductus Deferens
The Urethra
The Accessory Glands
The Seminal Vesicles
The Prostate Gland
The Bulbourethral Glands
Clinical Brief: Prostatitis
The Penis
Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
The Ovaries
The Ovarian Cycle and Oogenesis
Age and Oogenesis
The Uterine Tubes
Histology of the Uterine Tube
Clinical Brief: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
The Uterus
Suspensory Ligaments of the Uterus
Internal Anatomy of the Uterus
The Uterine Wall
Clinical Brief: Cervical Cancer
Blood Supply to the Uterus
Histology of the Uterus
The Uterine Cycle
The Vagina
Histology of the Vagina
Clinical Brief: Vaginitis
The External Genitalia
The Mammary Glands
Development of the Mammary Glands During Pregnancy
Embryology Summary: Development of the Reproductive System
Pregnancy and the Female Reproductive System
Aging and the Reproductive System
The Male Climacteric
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Testicular Torsion
Prostate Cancer
Uterine Tumors and Cancers
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Conception Control
Human Development: An Overview of Development
The Oocyte at Ovulation
Pronucleus Formation and Amphimixis
Prenatal Development
The First Trimester
Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation
The Second and Third Trimesters
Labor and Delivery
Stages of Labor
The Dilation Stage
The Expulsion Stage
The Placental Stage
Clinical Brief: Forceps Deliveries and Breech Births
Premature Labor
The Neonatal Period
Clinical Brief: Evaluating the Newborn Infant
Related Clinical Terms
Related Clinical Issues
Chromosomal Analysis
Technology and the Treatment of Infertility
Problems with the Implantation Process
Problems with Placentation
Teratogens and Abnormal Development
Complexity and Perfection: An Improbable Dream
Clinical Issues
Weights and Measures
Answers to Review Questions
Foreign Word Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms
Eponyms in Common Use
Glossary of Key Terms
Photo Credits