Clinical Interpretation of the WAIS-III and WMS-III

ISBN-10: 0127035702

ISBN-13: 9780127035703

Edition: 2003

Authors: David S. Tulsky, Donald H. Saklofske, Robert Bornstein, Gordon J. Chelune, Robert K. Chelune Heaton

List price: $96.95
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Since publication of the "WAIS-III" and "WMS-III" in 1997, practitioners and graduate trainers have been requesting methods of interpreting and using these tests in clinical diagnosis. This title discusses how to use these two tests in clinical practice.
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Book details

List price: $96.95
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 5/7/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 618
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.2
Language: English

The Evolution of the Wechsler Scales
Historical Overview of Intelligence and Memory: Factors Influencing the Wechsler Scales
The early 1800s
Galton and Cattell
Spearman's Two-Factor Theory and Thorndike's Multifactorial Theory
Binet and Simon: The Measurement of Intelligence in Children
Yerkes and intelligence tests in the Military
The Wechsler Scales of Intelligence
History of Memory Assessment
The Concept of Memory
Clinical Assessment of Memory
Revising a Standard: An Evaluation of the Origin and Development of the WAIS-III
Why a Revision Was Necessary
Changing Test Scores and Norms
Revised Test Structure
Goals for the WAIS-III Revision
Deciding What to Change
Changes and Reactions
Emphasis on the Factor Scores
Events Leading up to the WAIS-III
Wechsler's Unrealized Goal: Measurement of Nonintellective Factors
Description of Subtests
Block Design
Picture Completion
Matrix Reasoning
Picture Arrangement
Object Assembly
Letter Number Sequencing
Digit Span
Digit Symbol
Symbol Search
The Wechsler Memory Scale, Third Edition: A New Perspective
Historical Factors Leading to the Development of the Wechsler Memory Scale
The Wechsler Memory Scale
The Publication of the WMS-R
Development of the WMS-III
Description of WMS-III
Structure of WMS-III Index and Subtests Scores
The Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index Scores
Verbal Paired Associates
The Visual Immediate and Visual Delayed Indexes
Working Memory Index
The Auditory Recognition Delayed Index
General and Immediate Memory
Support for the WMS-III Structure
Reducing Variance When Interpreting WAIS-III and WMS-III Scores: Introduction to Chapters 4-8
Assessment of Cognitive Functioning with the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Development of a Six-Factor Model
Contemporary Models of Cognitive Functioning
Factor-Analytic Studies of the Wechsler Scales
Joint WAIS-III/WMS-III Factor-Analytic Studies
The Development of New Norms for a Six-Factor Model of Cognitive Functioning
Development of New Index Scores
Psychometric Properties
Reliability Coefficients
Demographic Effects and Use of Demographically Corrected Norms with the WAIS-III and WMS-III
Demographic Influences and Normative Corrections
Sensitivity of Demographically Corrected WAIS/WMS Factor Scores to Neurocognitive Impairment
Subject Samples
Developing Demographically Corrected T-Scores
Age Effects
Education Effects
Sex Effects
Ethnicity Effects
Sensitivity of WAIS-WMS-Corrected Scores to Neuropsychiatric Disorders
WAIS-III WMS-III Discrepancy Analysis: Six-Factor Model Index Discrepancy Base Rates, Implications, and a Preliminary Consideration of Utility
Understanding Difference Scores: The Logic of Discrepancy Analysis
Clinical Meaning versus Statistical Significance
Psychometric Foundations
Descriptive versus Inferential Uses of Discrepancy Data
Discrepancy Data Provided in This Chapter
WAIS-III WMS-III Discrepancy Data Provided with the Tests
Generating Six-Factor Model Index Score Discrepancy Base-Rates
How Do These Base Rate Differ from Those Already Available?
Unidirectional (1-Tail) versus Bidirectional (2-Tail) Discrepancy Base Rates
Understanding Discrepancy Base Rates: Clinically Informative Trends
The Rarity of a Discrepancy Varies across Comparison Pairs
Discrepancies Vary in Size across Intellectual Levels
The Direction of Discrepancies Varies with Intelligence Level
Which Index Contrasts Are Most Likely to Be Clinically Useful?
Sensitivity to Brain Dysfunction per se
Conventional Contrasts: Within-WAIS-III
Conventional Contrasts: Within WMS-III
Working Memory versus Memory Indexes
Auditory versus Visual Index
Traditional IQ-Memory Comparisons
VCI as "Best Estimate" of Premorbid Status
Discrepancies between the POI and WMS-III Scores
Index-to-Index Discrepancies
Does Discrepancy Analysis Work?
Brain Impairment
Subtest Variability
False Negatives for Co-occuring Intellectual-Memory Declines
False Positives with High-IQ Subjects
False Negatives with Low-IQ Subjects
Concluding Comments
Diagnostic Validity
Group versus Individual Statistics
Asking the Right Question
Diagnostic Validity Indices
Odds Ratios
Diagnostic Validity Indices and the WAIS-III and WMS-III
From Diagnostic Validity to Clinical Utility
Understanding Base Rates
Likelihood Ratios
Likelihood Ratios and WAIS-III and WMS-III Indices
Clinical Application
Use of the WAIS-III and WMS-III in the Context of Serial Assessments: Interpreting Reliable and Meaningful Change
Serial Assessment and Evidence-Based Health Care
Case Examples
Factors Affecting Test-Retest Performances
Methods for Assessing Reliable Change
Reliable Change Indices
Standardized Regression-Based Change Scores
Meaningful and Reliable Test-Retest Change on the WAIS-III and WMS-III
Application of the SRB Approach
Using Demographically Corrected Scores in the Context of Serial Assessments
Impact of Serial Assessments on Base Rates of Discrepancy Scores
Summary and Conclusions
Dealing with "curveballs" when using the WAIS-III and WMS-III: The interpretation of an unstandardized administration
Assessment of the Non-Native English Speaker: Assimilating History and Research Findings to Guide Clinical Practice
Ellis Island and the Assessment of the Immigrant
Assessment of Military Recruits During World War 1
Advances, Current Approaches and Opinions
The Relationship between Acculturation and Cognitive Functioning
The Relation between Acculturation and WAIS-III and WMS-III Scores
Accuracy of WAIS-III--WMS-III Joint Factor Scores When One or More Subtests Is Omitted or an Alternate Subtest Is Employed
Conversion of Scores to a Common Metric
Evaluation of Estimation Accuracy
Determining the Accuracy of Prorated Estimates of Full Scale IQ and General Memory Index
Determining the Accuracy of Subtest Substitution-Based Estimates of the Factor Scores
Impact of Subject Characteristics on The Accuracy of Estimates
Examining Sensitivity and Specificity
Organization of the Results Tables and Text
Summary of Results by Factor Score
Predicting Full Scale IQ and General Memory Index from the Subtests within the WAIS-III and WMS-III Factor Scores
Sensitivity and Specificity: Selected Examples
Verbal Comprehension
Perceptual Organization
Processing Speed
Working Memory
Auditory Memory factor
Visual Memory factor
Full Scale IQ and General Memory Index
Caveats and Limitations
Accommodating Clients with Disabilities on the WAIS-III and WMS
The Challenge of Clients with Disabilities
Decision-Making Framework for Accommodations
Construct-Irrelevant Variance
Construct Underrepresentation
Representing the Construct of Intelligence
Deleting Subtests When Estimating Intelligence
A Model for Accommodation Decision Making in Assessment
Legal Issues in Accommodations
How Should Accommodations Affect Test Scores?
Research on Accommodations
Visual Disabilities
Motor Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Neuropsychological Assessment and Accommodations
Research on Clinicians with Disabilities
Practices to Promote
Practices to Avoid
Training Others to Administer the WAIS-III and WMS-III: A Guide to Practical Issues
The WAIS-III and WMS-III: Practical Issues and Frequently Asked Questions
Why Use the WAIS-III and WMS-III If You Already Have the WAIS-R and WMS-R?
Teaching the Basics
Introduction of Tests and Establishing and Maintaining Rapport
Testing the Impaired Patient
Repeating Instructions/Items
When and How to Query
Testing the Limits
Practical Issues with WAIS-III Subtests
Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing
Picture Completion
Digit-Symbol and Coding
Block Design
Matrix Reasoning
Picture Arrangement
Symbol Search
Object Assembly (optional)
Practical Issues with the WMS-III
Logical Memory I and II
Verbal Paired Associates I and II
Faces I and II
Family Pictures I and II
Spatial Span
Word List I and II (optional)
Visual Reproduction I and II (optional)
Information and Orientation (optional)
Mental Control (optional)
Frequently Asked Questions
FAQ Regarding WAIS-III/WMS-III Administration
FAQ Regarding WAIS-III and WMS-III Scoring
FAQs Regarding WAIS-III and WMS-III Interpretation
Pioneer's in the Assessment of Intelligence and Memory
Reviews and Promotional Material for the Wechsler-Bellevue and Wechsler Memory Scale
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