Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics An Introductory Text

ISBN-10: 0125586914

ISBN-13: 9780125586917

Edition: 2007

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For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in atmospheric, oceanic, and climate science, Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics is an introductory textbook on the circulations of the atmosphere and ocean and their interaction, with an emphasis on global scales. It will give students a good grasp of what the atmosphere and oceans look like on the large-scale and why they look that way. The role of the oceans in climate and paleoclimate is also discussed. The combination of observations, theory and accompanying illustrative laboratory experiments sets this text apart by making it accessible to students with no prior training in meteorology or oceanography. * Written at a mathematical level that is appealing for undergraduates and beginning graduate students * Provides a useful educational tool through a combination of observations and laboratory demonstrations which can be viewed over the web * Contains instructions on how to reproduce the simple but informative laboratory experiments * Includes copious problems (with sample answers) to help students learn the material.
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Book details

List price: $89.95
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 12/6/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 344
Size: 7.50" wide x 10.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.838
Language: English

Outline, scope, and rationale of the book
Natural fluid dynamics
Rotating fluid dynamics: GFD Lab 0
Characteristics of the atmosphere
Chemical composition of the atmosphere
Physical properties of air
Dry air
Moist air
GFD Lab I: Cloud formation on adiabatic expansion
The global energy balance
Planetary emission temperature
The atmospheric absorption spectrum
The greenhouse effect
A simple greenhouse model
A leaky greenhouse
A more opaque greenhouse
Climate feedbacks
Further reading
The vertical structure of the atmosphere
Vertical distribution of temperature and greenhouse gases
Typical temperature profile
Atmospheric layers
The relationship between pressure and density: hydrostatic balance
Vertical structure of pressure and density
Isothermal atmosphere
Non-isothermal atmosphere
Further reading
The nature of convection
Convection in a shallow fluid
Convection in water
GFD Lab II: Convection
Dry convection in a compressible atmosphere
The adiabatic lapse rate (in unsaturated air)
Potential temperature
The atmosphere under stable conditions
Gravity waves
Temperature inversions
Moist convection
Saturated adiabatic lapse rate
Equivalent potential temperature
Convection in the atmosphere
Types of convection
Where does convection occur?
Radiative-convective equilibrium
Further reading
The meridional structure of the atmosphere
Radiative forcing and temperature
Incoming radiation
Outgoing radiation
The energy balance of the atmosphere
Meridional structure of temperature
Pressure and geopotential height
Distribution of winds
Further reading
The equations of fluid motion
Differentiation following the motion
Equation of motion for a nonrotating fluid
Forces on a fluid parcel
The equations of motion
Hydrostatic balance
Conservation of mass
Incompressible flow
Compressible flow
Thermodynamic equation
Integration, boundary conditions, and restrictions in application
Equations of motion for a rotating fluid
GFD Lab III: Radial inflow
Transformation into rotating coordinates
The rotating equations of motion
GFD Labs IV and V: Experiments with Coriolis forces on a parabolic rotating table
Putting things on the sphere
GFD Lab VI: An experiment on the Earth's rotation
Further reading
Balanced flow
Geostrophic motion
The geostrophic wind in pressure coordinates
Highs and lows; synoptic charts
Balanced flow in the radial-inflow experiment
The Taylor-Proudman theorem
GFD Lab VII: Taylor columns
The thermal wind equation
GFD Lab VIII: The thermal wind relation
The thermal wind equation and the Taylor-Proudman theorem
GFD Lab IX: cylinder "collapse" under gravity and rotation
Mutual adjustment of velocity and pressure
Thermal wind in pressure coordinates
Sub geostrophic flow: the Ekman layer
GFD Lab X: Ekman layers: frictionally-induced cross-isobaric flow
Ageostrophic flow in atmospheric highs and lows
Planetary-scale ageostrophic flow
The general circulation of the atmosphere
Understanding the observed circulation
A mechanistic view of the circulation
The tropical Hadley circulation
The extratropical circulation and GFD Lab XI: Baroclinic instability
Energetics of the thermal wind equation
Potential energy for a fluid system
Available potential energy
Release of available potential energy in baroclinic instability
Energetics in a compressible atmosphere
Large-scale atmospheric energy and momentum budget
Energy transport
Momentum transport
Latitudinal variations of climate
Further reading
The ocean and its circulation
Physical characteristics of the ocean
The ocean basins
The cryosphere
Properties of seawater; equation of state
Temperature, salinity, and temperature structure
The mixed layer and thermocline
The observed mean circulation
Inferences from geostrophic and hydrostatic balance
Ocean surface structure and geostrophic flow
Geostrophic flow at depth
Steric effects
The dynamic method
Ocean eddies
Observations of ocean eddies
Further reading
The wind-driven circulation
The wind stress and Ekman layers
Balance of forces and transport in the Ekman layer
Ekman pumping and suction and GFD Lab XII
Ekman pumping and suction induced by large-scale wind patterns
Response of the interior ocean to Ekman pumping
Interior balances
Wind-driven gyres and western boundary currents
Taylor-Proudman on the sphere
GFD Lab XIII: Wind-driven ocean gyres
The depth-integrated circulation: Sverdrup theory
Rationalization of position, sense of circulation, and volume transport of ocean gyres
Effects of stratification and topography
Taylor-Proudman in a layered ocean
Baroclinic instability in the ocean
Further reading
The thermohaline circulation of the ocean
Air-sea fluxes and surface property distributions
Heat, freshwater, and buoyancy fluxes
Interpretation of surface temperature distributions
Sites of deep convection
The observed thermohaline circulation
Inferences from interior tracer distributions
Time scales and intensity of thermohaline circulation
Dynamical models of the thermohaline circulation
Abyssal circulation schematic deduced from Taylor-Proudman on the sphere
GFD Lab XIV: The abyssal circulation
Why western boundary currents?
GFD Lab XV: Source sink flow in a rotating basin
Observations of abyssal ocean circulation
The ocean heat budget and transport
Meridional heat transport
Mechanisms of ocean heat transport and the partition of heat transport between the atmosphere and ocean
Freshwater transport by the ocean
Further reading
Climate and climate variability
The ocean as a buffer of temperature change
Nonseasonal changes in SST
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation
Interannual variability
"Normal" conditions-equatorial upwelling and the Walker circulation
Other modes of variability
Climate over Earth history
Paleotemperatures over the past 70 million years: the [delta superscript 18] record
Greenhouse climates
Cold climates
Glacial-interglacial cycles
Global warming
Further reading
The Planck function
Computation of available potential energy
Internal energy for a compressible atmosphere
Mathematical definitions and notation
Taylor expansion
Vector identifies
Polar and spherical coordinates
Use of foraminifera shells in paleoclimate
Laboratory experiments
Rotating tables
List of laboratory experiments
Figures and access to data over the web
Textbooks and reviews
Other references
References to paleo-data sources
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