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Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Emerging Technologies and Applications

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ISBN-10: 0123877091

ISBN-13: 9780123877093

Edition: 2nd 2012

Authors: Bent S�rensen

List price: $58.99
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A hydrogen economy, in which this one gas provides the source of all energy needs, is often touted as the long-term solution to the environmental and security problems associated with fossil fuels. However, before hydrogen can be used as fuel on a global scale we must establish cost effective means of producing, storing, and distributing the gas, develop cost efficient technologies for converting hydrogen to electricity (e.g. fuel cells), and creating the infrastructure to support all this. Sorensen is the only text available that provides up to date coverage of all these issues at a level appropriate for the technical reader. The book not only describes the "how" and "where" aspects of…    
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Book details

List price: $58.99
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Publication date: 11/24/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 512
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.782
Language: English

Units and conversion factors
Possible role of fuel cells and hydrogen
Production of hydrogen
Steam reforming
Partial oxidation, autothermal and dry reforming
Water electrolysis: reverse fuel cell operation
Gasification and woody biomass conversion
Biological hydrogen production
Photosynthesis, Bio-hydrogen production pathways, Hydrogen production by purple bacteria, Fermentation and other processes in the dark, Industrial-scale production of bio-hydrogen
Direct thermal or catalytic splitting of water
Issues related to scale of production
Centralised hydrogen production
Distributed hydrogen production
Vehicle on-board fuel reforming
Production of methanol, Methanol-to-hydrogen conversion
Hydrogen conversion overview
Uses as an energy carrier
Uses, as an energy storage medium
Combustion uses
Stationary fuel cell uses
Fuel cell uses for transportation
Direct uses
Hydrogen storage options
Compressed gas storage
Liquid hydrogen storage
Hydride storage
Chemical thermodynamics, Metal hydrides, Complex hydrides, Modelling metal hydrides Cryo-adsorbed gas storage in carbon materials
Other chemical storage options
Comparing storage options
Hydrogen transmission
Container transport
Pipeline transport
Problems and discussion topics
Fuel cells
Basic concepts
Electrochemistry and thermodynamics of fuel cells
Electrochemical device definitions, Fuel cells
Modelling aspects
Quantum chemistry approaches
Hartree-Fock approximation, Basis sets and molecular orbitals, Higher interactions and excited states: M�ller-Plesset perturbation theory or density function phenome-nological approach ?
Application to water splitting or fuel cell performance at a metal surface
Flow and diffusion modelling
The temperature factor
Molten carbonate cells
Solid oxide cells
Acid and alkaline cells
Proton exchange membrane cells
Current collectors and gas delivery system
Gas diffusion layers
Membrane layer
Catalyst action
Overall performance
High-temperature and reverse operation
Degradation and lifetime
Direct methanol and other non-hydrogen cells
Biofuel cells
Problems and discussion topics
Passenger cars
Overall system options for passenger cars
PEM fuel cell cars
Performance simulation
Other road vehicles
Ships, trains and airplanes
Power plants and stand-alone systems
Building-integrated systems
Portable and other small-scale systems
Problems and discussion topics
Implementation scenarios
Infrastructure requirements
Storage infrastructure
Transmission infrastructure
Local distribution
Filling stations
Building-integrated concepts
Safety and norm issues
Safety concerns
Safety requirements
National and international standards
Scenarios based on fossil energy
Scenario techniques and demand modelling
Global clean fossil scenario
Clean fossil technologies, Fossil resource considerations, The fossil scenario, Evaluation of the clean fossil scenario
Scenarios based on nuclear energy
History and present concerns
Safe nuclear technologies
Inherently safe designs, Technical details of energy amplifier, Nuclear resources assessment, Safe nuclear scenario construction, Evaluation of the safe nuclear scenario
Scenarios based on renewable energy
Global renewable energy scenarios
Detailed national renewable energy scenario
Danish energy demand in 2050, Available renewable resources, Construction of 2050 scenarios for Denmark, Centralised scenario, Decentralised scenario, Assessment of renewable energy scenarios
New regional scenarios
Problems and discussion topics
Social implications
Cost expectations
Hydrogen production costs
Fuel cell costs
Hydrogen storage costs
Infrastructure costs
System costs
Life-cycle analysis of environmental and social impacts 372
Purpose and methodology of life-cycle analysis
Life-cycle analysis of hydrogen production
Conventional production by steam reforming, Production by electrolysis, Direct bio-production of hydrogen from cyanobacteria or algae, Impacts from use of genetically engineered organisms, Hydrogen from fermentation of biomass
Life-cycle analysis of fuel cells
SOFCs and MCFCs, PEM fuel cells
Life-cycle comparison of conventional passenger car and passenger car with fuel cells
Environmental impact analysis, Social and economic impact analysis, Overall assessment
Life-cycle assessment of other vehicles for transportation
Life-cycle assessment of hydrogen storage and infrastructure
Life-cycle assessment of hydrogen systems
Problems and discussion topics
Conclusion: a conditional outcome
The competition
The way forward
Hydrogen storage in renewable energy systems
Fuel cell vehicles
Building-integrated fuel cells
Fuel cells in portable equipment
Fuel cells in centralised power production
Efficiency considerations
How much time do we have?
The end, and a beginning