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Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Degradation

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ISBN-10: 0123869366

ISBN-13: 9780123869364

Edition: 2012

Authors: Matthew M. Mench, Emin Caglan Kumbur, T. Nejat Veziroglu

List price: $137.00
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For full market implementation of PEM fuel cells to become a reality, two main limiting technical issues must be overcome- cost and durability. This cutting-edge volume directly addresses the state-of-the-art advances in durability within every fuel cell stack component. Designed to be relevant to the professional community, in addition to researchers, this book will serve as a valuable reference, featuring topics covered nowhere else, and a one-stop-shop to create a solid platform for understanding this important area of development. The reference covers aspects of durability in the entire fuel cell stack. Each chapter also includes vision of pathways forward and an explanation of the tools needed to continue along the path toward commercialization. Features expert insights from contributing authors who are key industrial and academic leaders in the field Includes coverage of two key topics in the field- Testing and Protocol for Durability, and Computational Modeling Aspects of PEFC Durability- which are newly emerging, pivotally important subjects not systematically covered anywhere else Undertakes aspects of durability across the entire fuel stack, from membranes to bipolar plates
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Book details

List price: $137.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 12/21/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 472
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.980
Language: English

Dr. Veziroglu, a native of Turkey, graduated from the City and Guilds College, the Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, with degrees in Mechanical Engineering (A.C.G.I., B.Sc.), Advanced Studies in Engineering (D.I.C.) and Heat Transfer (Ph.D.). In 1962 - after doing his military service in the Ordnance Section, serving in some Turkish government agencies and heading a private company - Dr. Veziroglu joined the University of Miami Engineering Faculty. In 1965, he became the Director of Graduate Studies and initiated the first Ph.D. Program in the School of Engineering and Architecture. He served as Chairman of the Department of Mechanical Engineering 1971 through 1975, in 1973 established the Clean Energy Research Institute, and was the Associate Dean for Research 1975 through 1979. He took a three years Leave of Absence (2004 through 2007) and founded UNIDO-ICHET (United Nations Industrial Development Organization - International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies) in Istanbul, Turkey. On 15 May 2009, he attained the status of Professor Emeritus at the University of Miami. Dr. Veziroglu organized the first major conference on Hydrogen Energy: The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy (THEME) Conference, Miami Beach, 18-20 March 1974. At the opening of this conference, Dr. Veziroglu proposed the Hydrogen Energy System as a permanent solution for the depletion of the fossil fuels and the environmental problems caused by their utilization. Soon after, the International Association for Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) was established, and Dr. Veziroglu was elected president. As President of IAHE, in 1976 he initiated the biennial World Hydrogen Energy Conferences (WHECs), and in 2005 the biennial World Hydrogen Technologies Conventions (WHTCs). In 1976, Dr. Veziroglu started publication of the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (IJHE) as its Founding Editor-in-Chief, in order to publish and disseminate Hydrogen Energy related research and development results from around the world. IJHE has continuously grew; now it publishes twenty-four issues a year. He has published some 350 papers and scientific reports, edited 160 volumes of books and proceedings, and has co-authored the book "Solar Hydrogen Energy: The Power to Save the Earth". Dr. Veziroglu has memberships in eighteen scientific organizations, has been elected to the Grade of Fellow in the British Institution of Mechanical Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is the Founding President of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy. Dr. Veziroglu has been the recipient of several international awards. He was presented the Turkish Presidential Science Award in 1974, made an Honorary Professor in Xian Jiaotong University of China in 1981, awarded the I. V. Kurchatov Medal by the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy of U.S.S.R. in 1982, the Energy for Mankind Award by the Global Energy Society in 1986, and elected to the Argentinean Academy of Sciences in 1988. In 2000, he was nominated for Nobel Prize in Economics, for conceiving the Hydrogen Economy and striving towards its establishment.

Durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: Status and Targets
Durability Targets for PEFC Technology
United States Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell-Technology Platform
Japanese New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization
Concluding Remarks
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Membrane Durability: Physical and Chemical Degradation
Performance-Durability Trade-offs
Accelerated Durability Testing and Failure Analysis
Chemical Degradation
Initiation: Oxidants
End Chain Degradation Pathways
Acid Site Degradation Pathways
Mitigation of Chemical Degradation
Chemical Durability of Hydrocarbon-based PEMs
Mechanical Degradation
Initiation: Hygrothermal Mechanical Stress
Membrane Strength
Membrane Fracture Toughness
Mitigation of Mechanical Degradation
Combined Chemical and Mechanical Degradation
Membrane Shorting
Compression Induced Soft Shorts
Voltage Induced Hard Shorts
Thermal-Electrical Analysis
Mitigation of Membrane Shorting
Summary and Future Challenges
Electrochemical Degradation: Electrocatalyst and Support Durability
The Catalyst Layer
Practical Targets for Electrocatalyst Activity, Cost and Durability
Significant Literature
Catalyst Durability
Support Durability
Sub-zero Operation
Experimental Set-up and Diagnostic Techniques
Experimental Set-up
Diagnostic Techniques
Results and Discussion
Ex-situ Pt Dissolution Measurements
In-situ Catalyst Degradation Under Automotive Operation
Durability of PEMFC Stacks in Vehicles
Summary and Future Challenges
Gas Diffusion Media and their Degradation
Fabrication of Woven and Non-Woven GDLs
Manufacturers of GDLs
GDL Properties and their Characterization
Surface Morphology and Fiber Structure
Porosity and Gases and Water Transport
Electrical Conductivity and Contact Resistance
Thermal Conductivity and Contact Resistance
Mechanical Characteristics
Other GDL Characteristics
The Degradation Mechanisms of GDLs
Electrochemical Degradation
Mechanical Degradation
Thermal Degradation
Bipolar Plate Durability and Challenges
Literature Survey of Metallic Bipolar Plate Technology
Non-coated Metals
Coated Metals
Amorphous Alloys
Composite Plates
Methods, and Approaches
Interfaciai Contact Resistance (ICR) Measurement Setup
Accelerated Corrosion Resistance Test Cell Setup
Results and Discussion
Interfacial Contact Resistance (ICR) Measurements
Accelerated Corrosion Resistance Test
Effect of Roughness
Freeze Damage to Polymel Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Computational Model Efforts
Modes of Degradation
Catalyst Layer Damage
Loss of Electrochemical Surface Area
DM Fracture and Loss of Hydrophobicity
Methods of Freeze Damage Mitigation
Damage Mitigation via Material Choice and Design
Comments on ProperConditions for Experimental Testing of Freeze/Thaw
Summary and Future Outlook
Experimental Diagnostics and Durability Testing Protocols
General Comments on Diagnostic Test Procedures
Polarization-change Curve
Key Limiting Cases of Polarization-Change Curves
Analyzing Actual Polarization-Change Curves
Isolating the Components Responsible for Performance Loss
Catalytic Activity Losses
Ohmic Losses
Reactant Mass-Transport Losses
Accelerated Test Protocols
Nomenclature and Abbreviations
Advanced High Resolution Characterization Techniques for Degradation Studies in Fuel Cells
Optical Visualization
Flow Channels
Gas Diffusion Media
Catalyst Layers
Neutron Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Electron Spectroscopy and Microscopy
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
Electron Microscopy - SEM and TEM
X-ray Techniques
X-ray Diffraction
X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
X-ray Absorption Technique
Thermal Mapping
Summary and Outlook
Computational Modeling Aspects of PEFC Durability
Significant Literature
Macroscopic Models of Chemical Membrane Degradation
Microscopic Models of Membrane Degradation
Macroscopic Models of Mechanical Membrane Degradation
Macroscopic Models for Mechanical Degradation of Catalyst Layer and Interface
Models of Contamination
Macroscopic Models of Carbon Corrosion
Microscopic Models on Platinum Dissolution
Macroscopic Models of Catalyst Degradation
Our Recent Approaches toward Macroscopic Models of Catalyst Degradation
Sirnplified Model
Integrated Model
Results and Discussion
Summary and Future Challenges